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Pies and Pastry

Ms. Campbell

Lisa Campbell

on 24 October 2016

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Transcript of Pies and Pastry

Pastries (pie crusts) are made from four basic ingredients: flour, fat, salt, and water.
Main Ingredients:

Avoid gluten development as much as possible since excessive gluten will make for a very dense, tough texture. The lower water content and minimal manipulation of the dough both help reduce gluten development.
2. Disperse the shortening or fat so that it will perform its two tenderizing functions:
(a) isolating very small particles of starch and protein in the flour from each other, and (b) isolating whole sheets of dough from each other.
There are two keys to making good pastry dough
FLOUR: Just as in breads, flour gives structure to the pastry. Good pastry requires a fairly soft wheat flour as opposed to bread which is best made with a hard wheat flour. At the same time, the flour should not be too starchy; that would produce a mealy pastry. All-purpose flour, which is a compromise between hard and soft, generally works well.
Functions of Ingredients:
FAT: Fat makes pastry tender because it inhibits or holds back the development of gluten in the flour. Fat helps the flakiness because it separates the layers of gluten. There are two ways in which shortening tenderizes pastry dough. In order to separate starch granules and gluten strands from each other, the fats must be dispersed throughout the dough. Coarser and less homogenous fat particles will separate whole layers of dough.
Functions of Ingredients (Cont.)
Fats (Cont.) Even dispersion is easiest with liquid oils, but the coarser dispersion is best accomplished with solid fats or hydrogenated oils. If a crumbly, mealy crust is desired, oil is the best fat; flaky crusts are best made with lard or solid vegetable shortening. Lard, the traditional favorite, produces superior flakiness because it forms crystals so large that they give the fat a noticeably grainy texture. However, lard will spoil or mm rancid rather quickly unless refrigerated, and has a bad reputation for being high in cholesterol and saturated fats. Most flaky crusts are made with hydrogenated fats
Functions of Ingredients (cont.)
SALT: Salt has only one purpose-to add flavor. The quantity of salt may be decreased or increased as desired without hindering tenderness or flakiness. If a salted fat is used, the amount of salt in the recipe should be decreased.
LIQUID: Water is the most common liquid used in pastry although milk and other liquids may be used. Liquids hydrate or moisten the flour so that sufficient gluten can be developed to form a cohesive dough. When the amount of water is increased, more gluten develops from the flour proteins and the pastry is less tender than desired. Liquids also provide some steam to leaven or raise the gluten which produces flakiness or puffiness.
Functions of Ingredients: (cont.)
TENDERNESS:The proportions of flour, fat, and liquid and the level of manipulation influence pastry tenderness. Facts to remember:

FLAKINESS:Flakiness develops as the small to coarse particles of fat are coated with moistened flour, flattened into layers by the rolling pin, melted in the oven, and absorbed by the adjacent dough to form hollow spaces between layers of baked dough.Too much or too little water in proportion to the fat decreases flakiness which is promoted by the production of steam. As the expanded protein molecules are coagulated by the heat of the oven, the flaky structure becomes firm.
Facts to Remember:
Sift flour with salt.
Cut fat into flour.
Add cold liquid and mix.

Mixing Pie Dough
Scale Dough:
For 9” top crust use 7 oz.
For 9” bottom crust use 8 oz.
Add 1 oz. to top and 2 oz. to bottom crust for each additional inch.
Shaping Pie Dough
The bench and rolling pin with flour.
Do not over dust.
Roll Out the Dough:
Roll to 1/8” thickness, from the center out.
Make sure it does not stick.
Shaping Pie Dough
Pan Dough: Roll dough tightly around pin, lift, unroll into pan, and press into sides.
Flute Single-Crust Pies: Decorate the crust by making uniform folds around the edge of the pie.
Shaping Pie Dough
Seal & Flute Two-Crust Pies: Use water or egg wash to moisten edges and seal crusts together. Flute crust and apply egg wash or glaze if desired
Shaping Pie Dough
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