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Transcript of FINISHING MATERIALS
BY: KENNETH KIER T. REYES
In construction, materials and items used to improve the service and decorative qualities of buildings and structures, as well as to protect structural members from atmospheric and other effects.
The main finishing materials in modern construction include finishing mortars and concretes; natural and artificial masonry materials; decorative ceramics; materials and items made from wood, paper, glass, plastic, and metals; and paints and varnishes.
Finishing materials are usually designed for interior or exterior finishing; some materials are used for both (for example, natural decorative stone, ceramic materials, and architectural glass).
A special group consists of materials and items for covering floors, which must meet a number of specific requirements (negligible wear, high impact strength, and so on).
An arbitrary distinction is made between finishing materials proper, which are used mainly to form decorative and protective coatings (varnishes and paints, wallpaper, polymeric films, linoleum, and so on), and structural finishing materials, which also perform the functions of enclosing members and are components of such members (decorative concrete, facing brick, glass blocks, and molded glass).
FINISHING MORTARS AND CONCRETE
The finishing mortars are used for the formation of walls and ceilings with ideal geometry, for the elimination of small defects on the base and provide uniform absorption for the laying of the next coat.
The execution of the finishing mortar is an exceptionally important task which should guarantee the complete development of the properties of the final coat and the aesthetic appearance of the finishing works, eliminating the negative effects from light shades resulting eventually from uneven or rough surface with different light reflection or from uneven absorption of the base
KINDS OF FINISHING MORTARS
MASONRY & REPAIR MORTARS
RENDERING & PLASTERING MORTARS
SKIMCOATS / FINISHING MORTARS
FAST-SETTING & GROUTING MORTARS
SPECIAL / PAVING GROUT MORTARS
masonry mortars are used together with all types of bricks, concrete blocks, light weight blocks and clay blocks to create masonry walls, both bearing and non-bearing, and can be applied by hand or by machine
plastering mortars can be used for basic rough levelling of mineral based walls, levelling and undercoating of concrete, light weight concrete, light weight blocks and brick walls. Filling holes and irregularities, levelling walls and ceilings. Also for repairing, levelling and undercoating of old rendered surfaces
mortars for walls or ceilings are suitable to smooth or fine-smooth before final treatment (i.e. paint, tiles, wall papers) of all even mineral based substrates like gypsum boards or plastered surfaces.
Cementitions mortars, corrosion inhibitors and epoxy inhibitors in order to repair, restore, and protect damaged or odd concrete structures and reinforce concrete structures
Ceresit solutions based on special mortars allow to anchor elements to horizontal or vertical surface, fix structural or non structural components such as plates, signs, masonry sections and bed components as iron manhole frames, street furnitureCeresit solutions based on special mortars allow to anchor elements to horizontal or vertical surface, fix structural or non structural components such as plates, signs, masonry sections and bed components as iron manhole frames, street furniture
paving joints/grout mortars are designed to facilitate the mortar application and to ensure the long-term service life of the joint.
A traditional finishing material is decorative stone, which is durable and has an attractive appearance.
Stone finishing materials are used for exterior and interior facings on walls and for floor coverings, mainly in public buildings and structures, such as theaters, hotels, and subway stations.
Stone materials are also used in the form of decorative chips to finish the surfaces of concrete and reinforced-concrete parts and units.
Types of Decorative Stones
Character: Often has "busy" visual texture in a variety of colors
Formation: Granite is a plutonic igneous rock having visibly crystalline texture; generally composed of feldspar, mica and quartz.
Floor and Wall; Sometimes this is a desired look, but it can be very busy.
Countertops; The hardness of the stone makes granite the most popular choice for both kitchen and bathroom countertops.
Character: has voids, usually has some veining, variety of colors (mostly in the warm range).
Formation: Travertine is a sedimentary rock formed by precipitation of carbonate of minerals.
Floor and Wall
Generally not chosen for kitchen countertops due to its low density but travertine makes a beautiful countertop in a bathroom.
Character: Often has visible fossils embedded within, some color variety.
Formation: Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed of different crystal forms of calcium carbonate. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragment of marine organisms.
Floor and Wall
Not generally chosen for countertops due to its porosity and tendency to stain-limestone is suitable for bathroom countertops.
Character: Marble often has distinct veining with a wide variety of colors.
Formation: Marble is a metamorphic crystalline rock formed when limestone has additional heat and pressure applied to it by the earth's crust, causing the stone to re-crystallize.
Floor and wall
more popular choice for interior flooring.
Character: rough texture, mostly greys, but some varieties have dramatic some color variation.
Formation: Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash.
Floor and Wall: must consider shaling when choosing slate
Not generally used as kitchen countertops due to shaling.
Character: Looks similar to slate, but is harder and does not shale
Formation: a very hard metamorphic rock consisting of a mosaic of intergrown quartz crystals.
Same as slate
Character: translucent, can range from gold and oranges to green.
Formation: Onyx is a cryptocrystalline form of quartz. Onyx is a sedimentary rock, formed as stalactites and stalagmites in cave interiors.
Floor, Wall and decorative.
Most popular for Vanity countertops or specialty surfaces.
Character: Grey, sometimes greenish. With white veining. Smooth "soapy".
Formation: a metamorphic rock that is largely composed of the mineral talc.
Generally used for countertops
Chemical and heat resistant but NOT scratch resistant.
A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, metal, or even glass.
Types of Tiles
Cement tiles are handmade, decorative, colorful tiles used primarily as floor coverings. Floors or walls covered with these tiles are noted for their multi-color patterns, durability and sophisticated look. These tiles are widely used in Latin America and Europe. Their popularity spread to the US, primarily in California and Florida through the 1930s and 40s.
Encaustic tiles are ceramic tiles in which the pattern or figure on the surface is not a product of the glaze but of different colors of clay. They are usually of two colors but a tile may be composed of as many as six. The pattern appears inlaid into the body of the tile, so that the design remains as the tile is worn down. Encaustic tiles may be glazed or unglazed and the inlay may be as shallow as an eighth of an inch, as is often the case with "printed" encaustic tile from the later medieval period, or as deep as a quarter inch.
Saltillo tile is a type of terra-cotta tile that originates in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. It is one of the two most famous products of the city, the other being multi-coloured woven sarapes so typical of the region. Saltillo-type tiles are now manufactured at many places in Mexico, and high-fire "Saltillo look" tiles, many from Italy, compete with the terra-cotta originals
Ceiling tiles are different from floor or wall tiles in that weight is an issue when decorating a ceiling. Ceiling tiles are lightweight and made from a wide variety of materials, such as plastic, metal, fiberglass, mineral fiber, wood fiber, vinyl-coated gypsum and even cork. Most tiles are designed for installation in a suspended ceiling system, though some are designed to stick to a ceiling and are ideal for decorating a plain ceiling that is in good condition.
Wood Finishing Materials
Wood finishing materials are notable for their excellent appearance and service qualities.
Facing products are produced not only from decorative natural woods, such as oak, beech, and walnut, but also from carefully processed common species, such as birch and pine. The service life of wood finishing materials is increased by treating them with wood preservatives and by applying paint and varnish coatings.
Types of Wood Finishing Materials
Plywood is a manufactured wood panel made from thin sheets of wood veneer. Plywood layers (called veneers or plys) are glued together, with adjacent plies having their wood grain rotated relative to adjacent layers up to 90 degrees.
Fiberboard is a type of engineered wood product that is made out of wood fibers. Types of fiberboard (in order of increasing density) include particle board, medium-density fiberboard, and hardboard. Fiberboard is sometimes used as a synonym for particle board, but particle board usually refers to low-density fiberboard.
In woodworking, veneer refers to thin slices of wood, usually thinner than 3 mm (1/8 inch), that typically are glued onto core panels (typically, wood, particle board or medium-density fiberboard) to produce flat panels such as doors, tops and panels for cabinets, parquet floors and parts of furniture.
Parquetry is a geometric mosaic of wood pieces used for decorative effect.
The two main uses of parquetry are as veneer patterns on furniture and block patterns for flooring. Parquet patterns are entirely geometrical and angular—squares, triangles, lozenges. The most popular parquet flooring pattern is herringbone.
A type of paperboard generally made from reclaimed paper stock
Vinyl wallpaper - This is, by far, the most commonly purchased type of wallpaper.
Common Types of Wallpapers
Natural wallpaper - A natural wallpaper is a great way to bring texture into a room. They can be purchased in a variety of materials including grass cloth, hemp, jute, and cotton. Natural wallpaper has grown in popularity because it is eco-friendly and the perfect option for the 'green' home or office. The downside of using a natural wallpaper is that it will need to be installed by a professional.
Foil wallpaper - If you are looking to give the illusion of a larger space, foil wallpaper will do the trick. This is a light-reflective wallpaper that will brighten up even the darkest of rooms. Foil wallpaper is extremely fragile and can easily rip or tear during installation, thus it should be installed by a professional.
Flocked wallpaper - You may have heard this type of wallpaper referred to as 'textured wallpaper'. When flocked wallpaper is made, synthetic fibers are applied to give a raised pattern effect. This type of wallpaper may be difficult to clean, but it works very well in disguising wall imperfections.
Fiberglass weaves - Unlike some wallpaper, this type of wallpaper will not peel off when exposed to extreme humidity or moisture. Made of thick strands of material, this is an extremely durable type of wallpaper that will adhere to any surface - including brick or concrete. Typically seen in commercial settings, this type of wallpaper will usually need to be special ordered and installed by a professional.
Wallpaper is a kind of material used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. It is usually sold in rolls and is put onto a wall using wallpaper paste. Wallpapers can come plain as 'lining paper' (so that it can be painted), textured (such as Anaglypta), with a regular repeating pattern design, or, much less commonly today, with a single non-repeating large design carried over a set of sheets.
Wallpapers of various types are widely used for interior finishing (mainly in residences); they have the advantages of low cost and labor requirements.
Glass can be used for much more than simply to cover the outside of your building - it can
also be used in interior design to brighten up rooms. The subtle, classic qualities of glass
work perfectly in combination with other materials such as wood, brick, concrete and metal.
is the basic flat glass product that is the first result of the float process. It is the common glass that tends to break into large, jagged shards. It is used in some end products -- often in double-glazed windows
is made of two or more layers of glass with one or more "interlayer’s" of polymeric material bonded between the glass layers.
is an ordinary float glass with a metallic coating to reduce solar heat. This special metallic coating also produces a mirror effect, preventing the subject from seeing through the glass.
Common Types of Glass
Plastic film is a thin continuous polymeric material. Thicker plastic material is often called a “sheet”. These thin plastic membranes are used to separate areas or volumes, to hold items, to act as barriers, or as printable surfaces.
Lincrusta is a deeply embossed wallcovering.
Lincrusta is made from a paste of gelled linseed oil and wood flour spread onto a paper base. It is then rolled between steel rollers, one of which has a pattern embossed upon it.
Linoleum is a floor covering made from renewable materials such as solidified linseed oil (linoxyn), pine rosin, ground cork dust, wood flour, and mineral fillers such as calcium carbonate, most commonly on a burlap or canvas backing; pigments are often added to the materials.
Common Types of Plastic Finishing Materials
Plastics are a promising type of finishing material. They are characterized by a broad range of colors, a variety of product shapes, excellent sanitary and hygenic qualities, and good corrosion resistance.
However, their service life substantially shorter than, for example, ceramic or glass finishing materials.
PAINT FINISHING MATERIALS
Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition which, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, is converted to a solid film. It is most commonly used to protect, color or provide texture to objects.
Paint finishing materials are intended mainly for painting operations.
It makes possible a substantial reduction in the labor-intensiveness of finishing operations and an improvement in the protective and decorative properties of structures.
Common Types of Paint
Matt color is the most common of interior wall paints. There’s no shine or sheen to the finish, making it ideal for walls and ceilings where you don't want any visual distractions. It’s easy to apply, although it can often take more than a single coat to create a good solid color. Matt paint can be applied with a brush or roller and works well on walls that have imperfections. This makes it ideal for older houses. On the downside, matt paint is easily marked. Although some marks can be removed with a damp cloth, matt paint needs regular retouching.
Matt enamel is very much like matt paint, but tends to be far more durable. It’s much easier to clean and rarely needs retouching, giving it a great advantage, especially if you have young children. It is also excellent for the kitchen, where you’ll regularly need to wipe walls. The visual effect is very similar to matt paint and it can be applied in the same way.
Satin finish is one of the types of interior wall paint that many people know of, but few really understand. The finish is somewhere between matt and gloss and produces a low, soft sheen. This makes it ideal for areas where you’ll need to clean the walls regularly.
An eggshell finish has a shine that’s extremely subtle but without the same smoothness as a satin finish. Thus, it doesn’t highlight imperfections quite as much, making it much more suitable as an interior wall paint. It’s easy to apply and can often cover in a single coat, making it a better choice for many people.
Semi-gloss is another common interior paint, although it’s more commonly used on trim rather than the walls. It offers a hard finish, is suitable to heavy use and is easy to clean with just soap and water. The shine produced is less than full gloss paint, but it’s usually easy to achieve a good covering with just a single coat.
Apart from matt paint, gloss paint is the most common interior wall paint. It’s one you can use on most walls, although some people use it sparingly on these surfaces and prefer to use it on woodwork because of its high shine. Gloss paint shows up all the imperfections on a wall and achieving an even coverage on a wall will often need more than a single coat of paint.
The main trend in the development of the finishing-materials industry is toward expansion of the assortment of materials, as well as toward improvement of their quality and an increase in the degree of factory preparation of materials and products.
The importance of this topic for us as an Architecture students is to be able to have knowledge and information about the right and exact materials that we will use in interior designing.
And it can give us ideas that we can put in our technical description everytime that we make plates.