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Transcript of Assessments
Tiffany Pettibone Assessments Objective Test Multiple Choice Test
- Contains a problem ( also known as the stem)
- Contains a list of possible answers
- The problem may be missing a word ( incomplete statement format) or may be in question ( direct questions format)
- The list of possible answers includes the correct answer and several wrong answers ( also known as distractiors)
There are several advantages of multiple choice testing. One advantage is that it allows a teacher to test students quickly and efficiently because this test format can include many questions on several different topics in a minimal amount of space. Multiple choice assessments can also be graded quickly and easily. Some of the disadvantages of multiple choice testing are that if they can be hard for a teacher to make if they are not already pre-made. Teacher made multiple choice tests can also be based on fact-based questions which only tests the student's ability to recall facts. Finally, multiple choice tests are more time consuming for students to take. Performance Assessment Performance assessment is also known as alternative assessment, authentic assessment, and direct assessment. The two different types of performance assessments are product assessment and performance assessment.
Science Lab Reports
Formative Assessment It is the only type of assessment that is part of instructional process. Class work and homework are commonly known names for the many types of formative assessments that can be used, and all of these assessments help the students and teachers know how well the learning process is unfolding. The teacher should use data from formative assessments to determine if any modifications need to be made to the lessons. Summative Assessment summative assessments determine whether or not the student has mastered the material at the end of a specific time period, such as the end of a unit or the end of a course. These assessments will also demonstrate whether or not long term learning goals were met. Formal Assessment Objective testing consists of several types of assessments. These test include multiple choice tests, matching tests, true or false test, and short answer tests. Examples Include
Teachers observations: The teacher can observe and keep records of the students as they discuss the material in groups or with partners
Questions: The teacher can determine what material needs to be re-taught or further explained by asking the students questions about the material
Self assessment: The students must think about their own learning and evaluate their own progress to determine what changes need to be made.
Graphic organizers: Students are provided a visual model that helps them process and retain information
Think-Pair-Share:: First, students think about a questions proposed by teacher. Next, the students discuss their answers with a partner. Third, they decide what information they want to share with the class. Lastly, they share the information with the class.
Constructive quizzes: The students write the answers to a quiz on both halves of a piece of paper. They tear the paper in half and turn in one half for the teacher to grade. The teacher can give the students immediate feedback and the students can learn from their mistakes because the teacher can give the correct answers right after the students take the quiz. Formative assessments should be used daily in the classroom and for homework. Teachers should keep their students motivated to learn by using assessments that are fun and engaging, and then providing the students specific feedback derived from the assessments. As teachers, we will write objectives for each lesson. When a student demonstrates during the formative assessments that he or she still needs help in a certain area, we will provide further explanations or probing questions until the student had mastered that objective. Examples Include
- End of unit tests
- Chapter tests
- End of course exams required by the state
- Semester or finial exams
- National or state tests
- SAT and ACT The classroom teacher should give chapter tests or end of unit tests once students have demonstrated a thorough understanding of the material during the formative assessments. As teachers, we will determine mastery if students earn grades of B's or higher on these tests.
Strengths of classroom summative assessments
- Teacher have objective information to use for course grades
- Teacher can easily spot strengths and weaknesses in student performance
- Teacher can see areas that need to be more effectively covered in class.
Weaknesses of classroom summative assessments
- Students might cheat
- Students might have test anxiety or a stressful situation that cause them to under perform
- The formal assessment can be in many different forms, oral teat, long and short answer test, multiple choice, problem solving test and observational assessments. Oral test are used for language proficiency tests. Long and short answer test are used when the question does not have a "right" and "wrong" answer. One of the most common formal assessments is a multiple-choice assessment. In this test the student is expected to choose the correct answer from a list of several wrong ones. Math tests use problem-solving test where students are expected to solve formulas and equations. The observational assessment is not always an assessment that the students are required to be active. The test is administered while watching the student's behavior performing a task.
- A formal assessment is most appropriate when a school wants to assess a student's set of skills or knowledge. Informal Assessment "Informal assessment is a method of measuring an individuals performance by casually watching their behavior or using other informal techniques" ( Glossary Of Education", 2006)
- Students are not always aware they are being assessed, informal assessments involve observations.
- Informal assessment is most appropriate when the observation is being conducted when the student is performing a skilled they have mastered. Advantages
less stress so students are able to perform better
the informal part is the teacher has to make up the assessments, there is no guide for the teacher to follow, they must have clear substantiation to provide a through evaluation Standardized Assessment "Standardized test is a test that is administered and scored in a consistent, or "standard" manner" (Standardized Test, 2011).
- Different forms of standardized tests are California Achievement Tests ( the CAT, the Stanford Achievement Test, the Iowa test of Basic Skills ( the ITBS), SAT and ACT.
- The test is mostly used to evaluate school programs, reports a students progress, select students for special programs and certify student achievement i.e. high school diplomas.
- It is also used evaluate how a student is performing below, at the same level or above his or her peers Advantages
predicting a students future success, better feedback about students own knowledge and skills, standardized tests motivate teachers to work harder and more effectively, more accountability due to the No Child Left Behind which has improved academic standards.
teachers lean towards teaching what is on standardized test to improve school scores rather than teaching other things, ( NO Child Left Behind), students are not able to remember the information after testing, teaching to the test, leaves little time in classroom for hands-on or creativity learning because teachers are more focused with state tests. Strengths ( mandated summative assessments)
- Student achievement can be compared to other students across the state or nation
- Can be used to appropriately place students in correct courses
- Holds teachers and schools accountable for student learning
Weaknesses (mandated summative assessments)
- Can require too much preparation time and detract from other learning experiences
- Most are multiple choice tests so students can guess the right answers
- Students do not find out what mistakes they made
- Many are computerized and students may have trouble focusing while reading a computer screen Matching Test
- Contain directions
- A list of problems or numbered items
- A list of choices or possible answers
The advantages to matching tests are that they allow a teacher to test students on a wide amount of subjects in a short amount of time. Matching tests test student knowledge on the relationship between two subjects as opposed to testing knowledge of facts. Matching tests are easy to score. Some of the disadvantages of matching tests are that they might reflect a student's ability to memorize information versus associating ideas and information. Matching tests may not reflect a student's ability to apply information on a certain topic or topics. Finally, matching tests can be confusing when they contain too many questions and options. Short Answer Tests
- Contain a direct questions or incomplete statement
- Contain space for a short answer
The advantages of short answer tests are that they have little to no room for guessing because the student must construct their own answer. Short answer tests are easy to construct when compared to other test formats. However, one of the main disadvantages of short answer tests is that they are more difficult to score because of the possibility of multiple possible answers for one question. True or False Tests
- Contains a declarative statement
- Contains two choice, true or false
True or false test have the advantage of covering several concepts in a short amount of time. They are less time consuming for students to take and for teachers to score. They are ideal for students with low reading ability because of the minimal amount of reading they require. True or false testing can measure a student's ability to understand, apply and interpret material. The biggest disadvantage of true or false testing is that this type of testing lends itself to guessing, thus making them unreliable. The questions may also leave room for error if they are not completely true or false. Strengths
- Many fun activities to use in classroom
- Help students earn better grades on tests
- Give students a chance to talk and be active learners
- Time-consuming for teacher to grade and give feedback daily
- Students might not pull all of their effort into the activities - A test used to gauge proficiency level of the person taking the test, each test is designed to test a specific skill or aptitude (" Glossary of Education", 2006). - The advantages of formal assessment are the convenience for schools. The test can be administered with no changes or surprises, the students are trained what to expect when formal testing. Another advantage is students can be compared to their fellow classmates. Students are also able to measure individual success of a certain skill with out comparing to fellow peers. With formal assessments they have the advantages of measuring achievements with peers as well an individual. There are also disadvantages to formal assessments. Students may become stressed which can cause them to freeze during test. Questions that may be worded incorrectly can lead to flawed test construction, meaning not all tests are constructed to actually measure what is intended. Reference Product assessments are assessments that consist of student constructed items that reflect a studnet's learning. Product assessments consist of three important things- the direction for the specific product the student will construct the product and a grading rubic or scale to grade the product. The most common types of products involved in product assessment are portfolios, work samples, projects, reports, research papers, science lab reports, journals or logs, models, and media products in various formats. Product assessments are often used in place of standard paper and pencil test. Performance Assessment
Science Lab Demonstration
Specific Task Presentation
Performance assessment assess student learning based on the ability to perform a certain task. Performance assessments consist of three things: the directions for the performance that will be assessed, the performance itself and a grading rubic or scale that will be used to grade the performance. The most common types of performance involved in performance assessment are oral presentations, media presentations, science lab demonstrations, athletic performances or demonstration, participation in an event, or an interview with the studnet. Performance assessments are often used in place of paper and pencil test. Burden, P. R. & Byrd, D. M. (2009). Methods for Effective teaching: Meeting the Needs of All Students.
West Virginia Deptment of Education. (n.d.). Examples of Formative Assessment. Retrieved from http://wvde.state.wv.us/teach21/ExampleofFormativeAssessment.html
Glossary of Education. (2006). Retrieved from http://www.education.com
Standardized Test. (2011). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standardized_test
Weaver, B.W. (2013). Assessments. Retrieved from http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/formal-versus-informal-assessments
Mandernach, B.J. (2003). Summative Classroom Assessment Retrieved from http://www.park.edu/cetl/quicktips/summative.html