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The Chemistry of Cosmetics

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Nichole Hardgrove

on 8 January 2013

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Transcript of The Chemistry of Cosmetics

The Chemistry of Cosmetics by: Nichole Hardgrove Coloring Agents Formulations Bulking Agents Odorants Ph Balance Chemists derive pigments and colorants from elements that most people would not even think of Pigments Colorants -soluble (in water or oil)
-used to color skin care products and toiletries
-these agents are used to give a product a certain tint and do not completely conceal something with said color. -not soluble
-usually remain in a crystal like particles
-divided into mineral and organic pigments
-used in Makeup, toothpaste, and face masks
-these agents are used to give a product a complete color and are used to conceal something with said color How these agents are obtained Natural
-extracted from minerals, plants, and animals Synthetic
-obtained through a synthetic procedure Common Coloring Agents Coal Tar- a sticky black liquid that is made by heating bituminous coal coal tar colors are formed from ring shaped hydrogen and carbon containing compounds called aromatic hydrocarbons which are purified from coal tar. some coloring agents can be very dangerous as they may cause cancer or blindness. Aluminum Powder
chromium oxide(Cr2O3)
iron oxide(Fe2O) A safer method of extracting pigments is through organic matter like plants and animals
But even that may have its side effects, such as swelling. itching. and rash. There are four different formulations in cosmetics. Oil based, Water based, Oil free and Anhydrous. Oil based Oil based foundations are water in oil emulsions which have pigments that are in oils, such as mineral oil or lanolin alcohol, vegetable oils and finally synthetic esters (such as, isopropyl myristate, octyl palmitate, isopropyl palmitate).

The water in the foundation evaporates after the application, thus leaving the pigment in oil on the face. This creates a moist feeling on the skin, which is helpful to people who have dry skin.

Oil based foundations do not change color as they mix with the sebum on the face because the color is fully developed in the oily phase of the formulation.

These foundations are easy to apply because the pigment can be spread over the face for up to 5 minutes until it finally sets. Water-based foundations are oil in water emulsions that do have a small amount of oil in which the pigment is emulsified with a relatively large amount of water.

The first emulsifier is usually a soap (triethanolamine, nonionic surfactant). The second emulsifier, normally a smaller amount, is usually glyceryl stearate or propylene glycol stearate.

These foundations are better for dry and normal skin.

Because the pigment is already in the oil, this foundation type is not likely to have a color drift.

The time needed to apply the makeup is shorter with water based foundations than with oil-based foundations because of the the fact that it has less oil. Water based Oil Free Oil free foundations do not have any animal, vegetable, or mineral oils. They have other oily substances, such as the silicones dimethicone or cyclomethicone.

These foundations are meant for people with oily skin because they feel dry on the skin.

Silicone is noncomedogenic, nonacnegenic, and now hypoallergenic, because of the high demand of this type of foundation formulation.

Oil control foundations should not be confused with oil-free foundations.

All foundations contain a blotter that is designed to absorb sebum. Oil control foundations simply contain additional blotters, such as talc, kaolin, starch, or other polymers, which absorb more sebum.

Usually, these products contain dimethicone; however, mineral oil may be added. Thus, oil-control foundations are not necessarily oil-free. Anhydrous or Water free Anhydrous or Water free foundations are waterproof.

Vegetable oil, mineral oil, lanolin alcohol, and synthetic esters form the oil phase, which are then mixed with waxes to form a cream. Large amounts of the concentrated pigment are added into the formulation, thus creating a completely opaque foundation.

The coloring agents are usually based on titanium dioxide with iron oxides, which is occasionally combined with the pigment ultramarine blue. Titanium dioxide acts as a concealer or covering agent.

These products come in many different textures.

These foundations are suitable for people who have facial scarring who may want to completely conceal it. Mineral Foundation The newest foundation formulations are mineral makeups.

The name "mineral" refers to natural formulation but these foundations contain the same pigments as the liquids previously discussed only in a loose powder. The powders are easily brushed on over the face, but are also just as easily brushed off.

The simplicty of their formulation makes them more appealing to people with sensitive skin, prople who have allergies to certain makeup, or people with skin conditions such as rosacea or atopic dermatitis.

The pigments can provide some skin protection but should be combined with a sunscreen or lotion for the best results.

Moisturizer followed by the powder application may allow the powder to stay on the face longer.

Pigment blends can be created to lessen redness or sallowness in the face. Bulking Agents are not only used to change the cosmetics consistency but they also help the cosmetic stay on the skin Common Bulking Agents One of the most common bulking agents is Talc
Talc is commonly used because it absorbs perspiration and makes the application of the product much easier Talc is a powder made from the mineral Magnesium Silicate Polymers Polymers are added to cosmetics to change their consistancy as well. Polymers can be either Synthetic or natural Natural polymers are called Polysaccharides
Seaweeds are common Polysaccharides. Cosmetics that are too thick can be diluted with water or alcohol cellulose
chitin
silica, clay
flours
sulfates(of magnesium, and of potassium)
Sodium Chloride Fragrance Chemistry is one of the most complex studies. How to make a certain product smell just like an Ocean Breeze or a freshly bloomed Rose can be very perplexing Chemical Synthesis of Odorants Another very important thing to consider is just how the chemicals will react with the body. There are many things to consider when adding ingredients after all people put these perfumes on their face, on their hands, and they also inhale it. There are many things to consider when making cosmetics, such as the compatibility of the ingredients and the interaction of the product with its packaging. Chemical Synthesis also identifies molecules with new structures that are unable to be reproduced in nature! Chemical Synthesis is the execution of chemical reactions to get a certain product or products
Chemical synthesis provides a way to make molecules with the exact same sensory properties as many natural products such as flowers and fruits Ph plays a big role in the skins barrier, known as the Acid Mantle. The acid mantle is formed by oil and sweat secreting form the glands and also the breakdown of fatty acids. This barrier acts as an invisible veil that keeps lipids and moisture in, and removes the pollution and bacteria. The acid mantle is strongest and most balanced when the skin is slightly acidic (ph at about 5.5). Dermatologist state that skin that is more Basitic is more susceptible to acne.

Basicity also plays a role in aging. studies show that women with a more bascitic outermost layer of skin thend to have more fine wrinkles than women who had a more acidic outermost layer of skin. This is because a basitic skin type will be drier and more brittle than the Acidic skin type. The skin that was more moist showed to have 50 percent fewer wrinkles than the dry type. if the Acid Mantle is not intact this can make the skin more susceptible to inflammation thus making the skin "speed Age". Finally, Basitic skin is more susceptible to sun damage because its protective barrier has weakened. Credits "The Chemistry of Cosmetics" 25 August 2009. HowStuffWorks.com. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/the-chemistry-of-cosmetics-info.htm> 29 December 2012. How to Get Balanced Skin." ELLE. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. "Fragrance." COSMETICSINFO.ORG - Your Source for Safety Information about Cosmetics and Personal Care Products. COSMETICSINFO.ORG, n.d. Web. 29 Dec. 2012. "Emulsion" Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, n.d. Web. 29. Dec. 2012. Elsevier. "Analysis of Cosmetic Products". Google Books. Elsevier, n.d. Web. 29. Dec. 2012. Virtual Beauty. "Cosmetic Chemistry." Cosmetic Chemistry. Virtual Beauty Corperation, n.d. Web. 30 Dec. 2012. Geffroy, Laurine. "The Chemistry of Cosmetics _ CNRS Website - CNRS. CNRS International Magazine, n.d. Web. 30, Dec. 2012. Chang, Raymond. Chemistry. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994. Print
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