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The Effects of Temperature on Skin Vascularity

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by

Kyle Edwards

on 10 June 2014

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Transcript of The Effects of Temperature on Skin Vascularity

Results:

Vascularity is the skins ability to increase or decrease temperature using blood vessel that are found underneath the skin. This experiment allows us to see how the body will abapt to disturbances to different regions of skin and determine which regions adapt quicker.
Example:
Height: 6’1
Weight: 315 lbs
Clothing: T-Shirt/Jeans
Age: 17
Food: no lunch
Coffee: No
Hair (finger/elbow/neck): no/yes/yes
Exercise: No

To monitor our results, we did a survey of our test subjects. In this survey, we made sure to include anything that could affect temperature. The survey included the subjects age, weight, height, if they drank coffee that day, what they wore, what they ate for lunch, if they have hair in those areas, and if they had done any physical exercise that day
How it could've been more consistent:
To be more consistent in our results, some things we could have done are:
1) Have subjects with the same qualities
2) Find a better way of heating the body's temperature, because the heat coming of the hot tub would continue to slightly raise the temperature of the skin when we were collecting our data.
3) Have all our test subjects use the hot tub to get more consistent results
4)Larger container so that the subjects with larger arms could fully submerge thier arm and fingers in the ice or hot water.

How We Monitored Our Results.
By: Richard Sawatzky, Kyle Edwards, Greg Metcalfe
The Effects of Temperature on Skin Vascularity
The purpose of this experiment is to compare the rate of recovery from both cold and hot environments on different skin regions, as well as compare the rate of recovery with vascularity.

Purpose
Vernier computer interface, Vernier Surface Temperature Sensor, Logger Pro, Temperature Sensor, aquarium, ice, scissors, tape, hot water, paper towel and a hot tub.
Materials
Theory
Homeostasis refers to the body’s ability to maintain internal conditions whether it is temperature, pH or hydration. However the body’s metabolic processes work only at a certain optimal conditions, when this specific condition is disturbed by a change in the environment, the body systems work to return it to that optimal condition. According to ABPI (2012) many of the body’s metabolic processes necessary to sustain human life occur at a “core body temperature ... [of] normally 37°C no matter what the temperature of the surroundings or the activity level of the individual. It is controlled by a negative feedback system” (p.6)
So in order to maintain this specific core body temperature, the hypothalamus of the brain, according to ABPI (2012), “sends nerve impulses to the sweat glands, muscles and
blood vessels
to raise or lower the temperature” (p. 6). The Hypothalamus contains receptors that are sensitive to changes in temperature in the
blood
flowing to the brain. While the brain is responsible for regulating temperature within the body, changes in temperature are sensed first by the skin and then relayed to the brain. Beneath the protective epidermal layer of the skin lies the second layer called the dermis, which contains sweat and oil glands and the rich supply of
blood vessels
that travels across the body. The dermal tissues manipulate body temperature by either allowing or redirect the
blood’s
contact with the surface of the skin.
If the body is too
cold...
According to ABPI (2012), when a specific region of the skin is exposed to the
cold

blood
is kept away from the surface by vasoconstriction, that is, narrowing of the
blood vessels
leading to the skin capillaries. Very little
blood
then flows through these capillaries and this minimizes the loss of heat from the skin. When
cold
is removed, the blood supply to the skin increases again as the
blood vessels
dilate” (p. 6).
If the body is too
hot...
The way the body recovers from
hot
and
cool
temperatures are very different. According ABPI if the body is to
hot
“the
blood vessels
leading to the skin capillaries dilate, known as vasodilatation. This allows lots of
blood
to flow near the surface and heat is lost through the skin by convection and radiation” (p.6). This is to say that in order to regulate the body’s temperature it must release the access amount of heat through dilated
blood vessels.
Also according to Mrs. Forester (2006) another way the body regulates temperature is by “[secreting] sweat, which then evaporates on the surface of the skin. Because evaporation requires heat to work, the process of evaporating sweat actually helps to lower the temperature of your skin” (p. 4)
Hypothesis
Regions of skin that are closer to vital organs will have a greater rate of recovery due to the greater amount of
blood vessels
found in that location (greater vascularity).
Procedure
1. Connect the Surface Temperature Sensor to the Vernier computer interface.
2. Remove excess oil from the skin over the tip of the index finger, upper arm, and neck with soap and water. Tape the Surface Temperature Sensor to the area that was cleaned. Be sure to tape the thermistor end (the tip) of the sensor directly to the finger, arm or neck.
5. Click “Collect” to begin data collection. Collect data for 300s to obtain a baseline recording of the temperature to use as the control. Click “Stop” to end data collection.
6. To store the data, choose “Save” which is beside the Run number
7. Remove the Surface Temperature Sensor from the finger, arm and neck.
8. Obtain an aquarium of ice and place the subjects arm and finger into the ice, over the area of the index finger, and upper arm to which the Surface Temperature Sensor was previously attached. Then simultaneously obtain a bag of ice and hold the ice over the area of the neck were the surface temperature sensor was previously attached. Hold this position for 30 s.
9. Remove the arm, finger and neck from the ice and quickly blot the area dry with paper towel. DO NOT RUB as friction can cause an increase in skin temperature.
10. Tape the Surface Temperature Sensor to the upper arm, index finger and neck again, in the same area where they were previously tested.
11. Click “Collect” to begin data collection. Data will be collected for 300 s.
12. Store this data

Cold Temperature Recovery by Skin of the Finger, Upper Arm, and Neck
HOT
Hot Temperature Recovery by Skin of the Index Finger, Upper Arm and Neck
1. Repeat steps 5-10, but instead of an aquarium of ice, replace the ice with hot water. To be able to perform the experiment with the neck, the subject must submerge their neck in a hot tub.
2. DO NOT BOIL the water or make it HOT enough that the test subject will be BURNT by it when they place there arm and finger in the aquarium or there neck in the hot tub.
3. Note: Keep the water at a constant temperature to produce the best results

Conclusion
In conclusion we have proven our hypothesis that areas of the body located closer to vital organs recover more rapidly to temperature change then to those farther away, this is directly due to greater vascularity in that area being able to adapt to disturbances. We have proven this by doing first hand research on 10 different people which gave us direct results correlating with our hypothesis.
P.S.
This is Not How We Treated Our Test Subjects...
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