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Copy of SLA, Chapter 12
Transcript of Copy of SLA, Chapter 12
Research Traditions Affect Social Distance Age Differences Aptitude Motivation Personality & Learning Style Learning Strategies Psychology Psycholinguistics Anxiety Affective Filter Motivations as a function of time and success Changes over time (Dörnyei & Ottó 1998) Influence of success on motivation and demotivation Extroversion & introversion Risk-taking Field independence/dependence Visual/auditory/kinesthetic Obtaining learning style information Competence vs. Performance
Differential language skills
Differential testing skills Behaviorism:
devalued cognition and motivation in SLA Downplays aptitude and motivation in SLA SLA research, influenced by these research traditions, has largely disregarded aptitude and motivation as factors contributing to ultimate attainment in SLA. "a feeling or emotion as distinguished from cognition, thought, or action" American Heritage Dictionary "refers to feelings or emotions that individuals have about something." (Gass & Selinker 2008, p. 398) "refer[s] to feelings or emotional reactions about the language, about the people who speak that language, or about the culture where that language is spoken." (Gass & Selinker 2008, p. 398) "Diary studies suggest that both language shock and culture shock are important for second language learners, but whether they truly affect acquisition is yet another story." (Gass & Selinker 2008, p. 398) Negative & Positive
Curvilinear effect of anxiety
Can distract attention of learners Includes factors such as:
motivation, attitude, self-confidence and anxiety Responsible for individual variation in SLA Factors necessary for acquisition:
comprehensible input (i + 1)
low Affective Filter from speakers of the SLA community
resulting in less exposure to input Acculturation Model (Schumann 1978a, b) If learners acclimate themselves to the culture of the L2, they will learn the L2. If not, they will not learn the L2. Alberto vs. Wes
evidence for the Acculturation Model? Is earlier always better? Across individuals?
Across the entire path of acquisition?
What advantages do children have?
What disadvantages do children have?
Adults Critical Period vs. Sensitive Period What does each suggest? One critical/sensitive period? Or many? What linguistic modules are more vulnerable? Age-related factors Social psychological
Input "refers to one's potential for learning new knowledge or new skills." (Gass & Selinker 2008, p. 417) Difficult to measure/define Various components (J.B. Carroll 1992)
Phonemic coding ability
Inductive language learning ability
Memory and learning
Different measures employed
MLAT (Carroll & Sapon 1959)
CANAL-FT (Grigorenko, Sternberg & Ehrman 2000) Apptitude for Language? Working Memory?
Central component of aptitude? "In general, motivation appears to be the second strongest predictor of success, trailing only aptitude." (Skehan 1989) "Motivation involves four aspects, a goal, effortful behaviour, a desire to attain the goal and favourable attitudes toward the activity in question." (Gardner 1985, p. 50) Can motivation change over time?
What is the effect of success on performance? (1) Preactional stage: motivation is generated; goal is selected
(2) Actional stage: sustaining the activity even with distractions
(3) Postactional stage: reflection about how the activity went/future activities Can have a positive or a negative effect
largely depends on the learner
How can this be measured?
How can this be predicted? "refers in broad terms to the preferences that an individual has of obtaining, processing and retaining information. ...how do individuals approach the task of learning?" (Gass & Selinker 2008, p. 432) Langauge learning advantages for:
introverts? What are its potential effects in SLA? "distinguishes individuals dichotomously as to whether or not they are dependent on a prevailing visual field." (Gass & Selinker 2008, p. 434) Independent: highly analytic, ignore potentially confusing info, self-reliant
Dependent: pays great attention to context
Which is better for SLA? "Most successful learners use a variety of modalities in learning" (Gass & Selinker 2008, p. 437) Various modes of testing for learning styles
Which is best? "those processes which are consciously selected by learners and which may result in action taken to enhance the learning or use of a second or foreign language, through the storage, retention, recall, and application of information about that language" (Cohen 1998, p. 4) "include strategies for identifying the material that needs to be learned, distinguishing it from other material if need be, grouping it for easier learning, having repeated contact with the material, and formally committing the material to memory when it does not seem to be acquired naturally" (Cohen 1998, p. 5) Vocabulary Self-assessment How aware of these strategies are learners?
Poor learners vs. Good learners
You Awareness Strategies?