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Body Mechanics & Ergonomic Principles

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sarah fabrizi

on 21 November 2012

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Transcript of Body Mechanics & Ergonomic Principles

Body Mechanics In Everyday Activities
Clinician Tasks Lifting Tasks Wide base of support Never flex the spine General Principles: Use hips to move the torso To carry:
Fingers are flexed
Shoulder girdle, elbow, and wrist set
Object remains close to body Household Tasks Occupational Tasks Vacuum Laundry Meal Preparation Preparation:
Get an idea of the weight of an object
Use larger muscles, rather than smaller ones Muscle activation:
Postural control Neck flexors & extensors
Erector spinae & abdominals
Pelvis and lumbar spine in neutral Push/ Pull Activity:
Body weight in line with direction of motion
Tandem stance
Face your work
Avoid bending or twisting General Principles:
1. Practice Spinal Extension
2. Engage abdominals
3. Use legs to lift heavy objects
4. Safeguard your joints One typical load weighs 8 pounds
Reaching:
Do not let abdomen protrude
Avoid lateral twisting Apply principles of body mechanics to:
Reaching in cabinets
Obtaining cookware
Load/ unload dishwasher
In/ out refrigerator Transfers Basic principles of body mechanics apply:
Avoid trunk flexion & rotation
Place your center of gravity close to the client Ambulation Stand behind and slightly to the side of your client Grasp gait belt with hand closest
Maintain forward/ backward straddle
If a client begins to fall, pull towards you and bring safely to floor
A body of knowledge about human abilities, human limitations, and other human characteristics that are relevant to design. Ergonomics are important in the design of tools, machines, systems, tasks, jobs and environments for safe, comfortable, and effective human use. Ergonomics Clinicians can evaluate work tasks
Provide work station assessments
Optimize work environments for injury PREVENTION Basic Risk Factors Posture Repetition Force Mechanical compression/
contact stress Duration Vibration Temperature Awkward postures require increased muscle force

Contribute to muscle and tendon fatigue, and joint soreness

Can increase forces on the spine Repeated motions using the same muscle groups increase fatigue and muscle-tendon strain.

Highly repetitive tasks often prevent adequate tissue recovery from the effects of awkward postures and force Forceful exertions increase physiologic stress to muscles, tendons, and joints

Muscles fatigue faster as force increases

Force increases with object weight, load distribution characteristics (bulky or shifting), object friction, awkward postures, vibration, and type of grip Amount of time the worker is exposed to risk factor

As duration increases, recovery period increases proportionately Creates pressure over a small area

Can be caused by hard or sharp objects, sharp edge of desk, and small diameter handles

Interferes with blood flow and nerve function Occurs when a part of the body contacts a vibrating object, such as pneumatic, electric, or impact hand tools Cold reduces dexterity and sensitivity of the hand

Increases grip force requirements

Can exacerbate the effects of localized vibration Arranging the desk workspace Top of monitor at or just below eye level
Head and neck balanced and in line with torso
Shoulders relaxed
Elbows close to the body and supported
Lower back supported
Wrist and hands in line with forearms
Adequate room for keyboard and mouse
Feet flat on the floor http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/computerworkstations/checklist.html Evaluation checklist The workstation Work benches and tables should be at elbow height of the user, whether she is sitting or standing The height of work chairs should be adjustable. They are in proper position when the operator’s feet rest on the floor or on a support. For the average male American, the distance from the floor to the top of the chair seat should be about 18 inches Levers to which maximum force is applied, should be at shoulder level for standing operators; at elbow level for seated operators

Controls which must be used often should be between elbow and shoulder height

Convenient arm reach is about 28 inches; controls more distant will probably require the average operator to bend his body (not good)

For side-to-side movement, the strength of pushing is greater than that of pulling; in forward and back movements, pulling strength is greater than pushing strength

Horizontal movements of the hand are faster than are vertical movements

Flexion movements of the arm are faster than extension movements Biomechanical Interventions Basic Biomechanical Principles:
Strengthening
Building endurance
Increasing range of motion
Maintaining range of motion Strength Endurance Range of Motion Proper body movement to prevent and correct posture problems,
reduce strain and load, and enhance physical capabilities. Types of Lifts
http://www.yorku.ca/dohs/documents/armylift.pdf Maximum Voluntary Contraction
The maximum amount of tension that can be produced voluntarily Activity Tolerance Increase demand by time or number of repetitions Use of concentric & eccentric contractions
Example: Progressive Resistive Exercise
Use of isometric exercise
Use of isokinetic exercise To maintain:
Positioning to prevent long-term deformity
Edema control measures
Patient and caregiver education
To increase:
Gentle active stretch (slow, repetitive isotonic contractions
Prolonged passive stretch (most effective, especially for more established tightness) Therapeutic Activities
Gradable
Repetitive
Sustained position
Sustained grasp
Client is engaged while time increases
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