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Paper - 47850

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Transcript of Paper - 47850

Lecture
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17.1 The Real (versus the Mythical) West
How is the mythical view of the West, in which cowboys fought Indians for control of vast, unpopulated regions, wrong?
17.2 Western Indians under Threat
Why did the Indians have to give up most of their land in the West?
17.3 The American West Exploited
What factors led to the exploitation of the West?
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The Conquest of the West

17

Chapter

17.1 The Real (versus the Mythical) West
How is the mythical view of the West, in which cowboys fought Indians for control of vast, unpopulated regions, wrong?
17.2 Western Indians under Threat
Why did the Indians have to give up most of their land in the West?
17.3 The American West Exploited
What factors led to the exploitation of the West?

Focus Questions

1879 West Exploited—Major Powell’s Report on the Lands of the Arid Region suggests division of West.
1882 Mythical West—Chinese Exclusion Act bans Chinese immigrant workers for ten years.
1886 Exploitation—Blizzards end open-range ranching.
1887 Indians under Threat—Dawes Severalty Act splits tribal lands.

Timeline (2 of 2)

1859 West Exploited—Discovery of the Comstock Lode lures miners west.
1864 Indians under Threat—Chivington massacre of Cheyenne.
1869 West Exploited—Union Pacific Railroad completed. Indians under Threat—Board of Indian Commissioners established.
1876 Indians under Threat —Sioux slaughter Custer’s cavalry at Battle of Little Bighorn.
1877 West Exploited—Desert Land Act favors ranchers.

Timeline (1 of 2)

S. D. Butcher’s photograph of masked Nebraskans, 1885: Black-and-white photo shows four men wearing white masks as two of them hold large clippers over strands of a barbed wire fence.

Western Railroads
Government subsidies
Government land grants
The role of railroads in western development
Corruption and extravagance

The Cattle Kingdom (1 of 2)
Growing demand for food with urbanization
Cattle drives and cowboys: A multiethnic mix
Cattletowns: myth vs. reality

17.3 The American West Exploited (3 of 4)

Choice Farmland
Homesteading
Homestead Act: Family farms with 160 acres for free
Hampered by capital scarcity, climate, environment
Bonanza Farming
Large corporate interests
Destruction of western forests
Drought of the 1880s
Plains: Breadbasket of America, at a heavy price

17.3 The American West Exploited (2 of 4)

Photograph of Creede, Colorado, circa 1890: Black-and-white photo shows the busy main street of Creede, which is set between two massive stone mountains.

The Buffalo and Tribal Life Destroyed
Destruction of buffalo, the foundation of Indian culture
White reform of “Indian problem”: Abandon tribes
Dawes Severalty Act (1887) and its consequences
Wovoka and the promise of revival
The “Ghost Dance”
Sitting Bull’s arrest and death
Wounded Knee massacre of Sioux, 1890

17.2 Western Indians under Threat (3 of 3)

Native American depiction of the Sand Creek Massacre

Charles Russell’s Trail of the Iron Horse (1910): Painting Trail of the Iron Horse shows four Indians on horses about to cross railroad tracks as the sun sets on the open plains in the background.

Photo of Chinese workers on a railway in the far West: Black-and-white photo shows three Chinese workers standing on a small, four-wheeled handcar set on a railroad line.

How is the mythical view of the West, in which cowboys fought Indians for control of vast, unpopulated regions, wrong?
Rapid postwar change for 250,000 prairie Indians
Foreign-born populations
The importance of urban centers in the West
Agriculture, extraction, industry, and commerce
Chinese migrants: Their role in railroad construction
The Chinese Exclusion Act

17.1 The Real (versus the Mythical) West

17.1 The Real (versus the Mythical) West
How is the mythical view of the West, in which cowboys fought Indians for control of vast, unpopulated regions, wrong?
17.2 Western Indians under Threat
Why did the Indians have to give up most of their land in the West?
17.3 The American West Exploited
What factors led to the exploitation of the West?

Focus Questions

The Conquest of the West

17

Chapter

The Cattle Kingdom (2 of 2)
Open-Range Ranching
Cattle and water without landownership
The importance of branding
Concentration in the ranching business
Lack of legal framework for public land use
Barbed-Wire Warfare
1880s: Crowding caused conflict and violence
The change cheap barbed wire brought
Overproduction, price drops, and the winter of 1886–1887

17.3 The American West Exploited (4 of 4)

Photo of a sod house in North Dakota, 1896: Photo shows six men in front of a one-story sod house and a boy lying on the almost flat roof.

What factors led to the exploitation of the West?
American assumption of unlimited resources for exploitation

Gold and Silver
Miners, “strikes,” and boomtowns
Get-rich-quick, not sustainability
From single prospectors to corporate interests

17.3 The American West Exploited (1 of 4)

Photographs of three Lakota boys in the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, “before” (left) and “after” (right): On the left, a black-and-white photo shows three Indian boys seated on the floor. They wear traditional Indian garments and moccasins, have long hair, and two have a single feather at the back of their heads. On the right, a black-and-white photo shows the same three Indian boys seated on chairs. They wear conventional pants and jackets and leather boots, and have had their hair cut short.

Photo of mound of buffalo skulls: A black-and-white photo shows a mound of buffalo skulls that is perhaps 25 feet high and contains tens of thousands of skulls.

Defeat Follows Victory
Settlers trigger guerilla warfare
New reservation and farm conversion policy in 1867
Native military opposition
Maladministration of reservations
Poor treaties and corrupt Indian agents
Black Hills gold and Custer’s last stand

17.2 Western Indians under Threat (2 of 3)

Why did the Indians have to give up most of their land in the West?
Civil War meant loss of independence for tribes west of Mississippi

The Power of the Plains Indians Fades
Plains Indians and white culture
Settler pressure on Indians’ lands
Thomas Fitzpatrick’s “concentration” policy
U.S. “divide and conquer” strategy

17.2 Western Indians under Threat (1 of 3)

Map of the western U.S. shows the routes of cattle trail, railroads, mining centers, and the range of buffalo herds by 1870.
The routes of cattle trail are as follows:
Goodnight-Loving Trail connects Cheyenne in Wyoming and Texas.
Western Trail connects Ogallala in Nebraska and San Antonio in Texas.
Chisholm Trail connects Ellsworth in Kansas and Abilene in Kansas with Texas.
Eastern or Shawnee Trail connects Kansas City in Missouri and San Antonio.
Sedalia Trail connects Sedalia in Missouri with San Antonio.
Railroads marked are as follows:
Great Northern Railroad connects Washington and St. Paul in Minnesota.
Northern Pacific Railroad connects Washington and Duluth in Minnesota.
Oregon Short Line (U.P.) connects Seattle in Washington and Wyoming.
Central Pacific Railroad connects San Francisco in California and Utah Territory.
Union Pacific Railroad connects Wyoming and Omaha in Iowa.
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad connects Omaha and Chicago in Illinois.
Kansas Pacific (U.P.) connects Cheyenne in Wyoming with Kansas City in Missouri.
Missouri Pacific Railroad connects St. Joseph and St. Louis in Missouri.
Atlantic & Pacific (A.T. & S.F.) Railroad connects California and Albuquerque in New Mexico Territory.
Atchison, Topeka, & Santa Fe Railroads connect Albuquerque and Atchison in Kansas.
Southern Pacific Railroad connects California and New Orleans in Louisiana.
Texas & Pacific Railroad connects El Paso in New Mexico Territory and Shreveport in Louisiana.
The following mining centers marked: 1 in Montana, 2 in Idaho, 2 in California, 1 in Arizona Territory, 1 in New Mexico Territory, 3 in Colorado, and 1 in South Dakota
Range of buffalo herds by 1870: east Montana, east Wyoming, parts of North Dakota and South Dakota, east Colorado, west Kansas, part of New Mexico Territory, north Texas, and west Oklahoma Territory

Map 17.3 Squeezing the Indians Economically,
1850–1893

Map of the western United States shows the major tribes, routes of Indian removals before 1860, Western railroads constructed 1869–1897, and Indian battles with dates (west of Mississippi).
The map shows the following data.
Major tribes are shown in the following states and territories:
Columbia: Washington
Yakima, Nez Perce, and Kalapuya: Oregon
Kutenai, Flathead, and Shoshone: Idaho
Blackfoot, Assiniboine, and Gros Ventre: Montana
Crow, Wind River, and Arapaho: Wyoming
Paviotso, Gosiute, Panamint, and Paiute: Nevada
Maidu and Mono: California
Ute: Utah Territory
Navajo and Western Apache: Arizona Territory
Cheyenne: Colorado
Comanche and Eastern Apache: New Mexico Territory
Assiniboine: North Dakota
Teton and Pawnee: Nebraska
Kansa: Kansas
Wichita: Indian Territory
Kiowa, Comanche and Tonkawa: Texas
Ojibwa, Wichiyela, and Santee: Minnesota
Iowa: Iowa
Osage: Missouri
Caddo and Atakapa: Louisiana
Before 1860, Indians were removed from the west of the Mississippi River, in regions of Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana, to Indian Territory.
Western railroads constructed in 1869–1897 are as follows.
Great Northern Railroads and Northern Pacific Railroads connect Minnesota and Montana.
Central Pacific Railroad connects Utah Territory and California.
Union Pacific Railroad connects Omaha and Utah Territory.
Atchison, Topeka, & Santa Fe Railroads connect Kansas City to Albuquerque in New Mexico Territory.
Southern Pacific Railroad connects Louisiana and California.
The Indian battles marked are:
Clearwater 1877 and Big Hole 1877 in Idaho
Modoc War 1872–1873 in California
Bear Paw Mountain 1877 and Little Big Horn 1876 in Montana
Fetterman's Defeat 1868, Hole-in-the-Wall 1876, Pick of Rocks 1874, and Mud Springs 1865 in Wyoming
Big Hole 1877, Ash Hollow 1855, and Sand Creek 1864 in Colorado
Skeleton Canyon (Geronimo Surrenders) 1866 in Arizona
Kildee Mountain 1864, Big Mound 1863, Dead Buffalo’s Lake 1863, Yellowstone 1873, and Stoney Lake 1863 in North Dakota
Slim Buttes 1876, White Stone Hills 1863, and Wounded Knee 1890 in South Dakota
Rush Creek 1865 in Nebraska
Crooked Creek 1864 in Kansas
Red River War 1874–1875 in Texas

Map 17.1 Indian Wars, 1860–1890

Policy, Year, Provisions, Consequences
Indian Removal Bill, 1830
Indians surrender land east of Mississippi to settle in Oklahoma and elsewhere: Causes forcible removal of Indians from South
Treaty of Fort Laramie, 1851
Indian tribes establish tribal boundaries over shared hunting grounds and ensure safe passage of westward-bound settlers through Indian territory: Discourages concerted action among Indian tribes and fails to prevent settlers from encroaching on Indian lands
Railroad land grants, 1850–1871
Gives railroads lands to lay track throughout the West: Promotes settlement and further encroachment and hastens demise of buffalo
Treaty of Fort Laramie, 1868
Concentrates Indians in reservations in the Dakotas and Oklahoma: Compels dissident Indians to commence open warfare against U.S. government
Dawes Severalty Act, 1887
Breaks Indian lands into small plots for Indian families or sale to whites: Weakens tribal authority and causes loss of Indian land
Indian Reorganization Act, 1934
Rescinds Dawes: Increases tribal authority

Table 17.1 Key Federal Policies Affecting Indians

Four U.S. maps show the land transferred from Indians to whites and the land held by or returned to Indians in 1850, 1865, 1880, and 2010.
The 1850 map shows that the eastern half of the United States was transferred from Indians to whites and the western half was held by or returned to Indians.
The 1865 map shows that in the western half of the United States, much of California, Oregon, and Washington had been transferred from Indians to whites.
The 1880 map shows that large sections of New Mexico, Arizona, Montana, and South Dakota were the only parts of the country not yet transferred from Indians to whites.
The 2010 map shows the northeast quarter of Arizona was the largest section of land still held by Indians, and they also held smaller pieces of land in most of the western states.

Map 17.2 Loss of Indian Lands, 1850–2010

How is the mythical view of the West, in which cowboys
fought Indians for control of vast, unpopulated regions, wrong?
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