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YU : Observatory

on 22 March 2014

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Transcript of THE SOLAR SYSTEM

Interesting FACTS
The Solar System
The Milky way
www.huffingtonpost.com NASA/JPL/DLR

Mercury's proximity to the Sun forces it to be in syncronous rotation meaning that for every two orbits about the Sun, Mercury rotates on its axis 3 times.

Extreme temperature difference of 600 degrees celsius.

Temperature ranges between -173 C at night and 427 C at daytime.

Has the densest core aside from the Earth.
Image of Mercury from 40 cm telescope-Yorku Observatory
Stages of the transit of Venus as seen from Seoul, South Korea. Photograph: Jeon Heon-Kyun/EPA
A Nasa image of the transit captured by the SDO satellite. Photograph: Nasa/Getty Images
Sun Spots and Solar Flares
Dwarf Planets
Asteroid Belt
Other Objects
Missions UnManned and Manned
Protoplanetary Disk
Collaped due to Gravity
Planetesimals collide and accrete to become planets and moons
Interesting Facts and Atmosphere
2012 Venus Sun Transit
Milky Way

A barred spiral Galaxy

100,000-120,000 Ly in diameter

Contains 100-400 billion stars
Taken at yorku Observatory
Human Explorations
Interesting Facts
Interesting Facts
Martian Moon Deimos from MRO
Credit: HiRISE, MRO, LPL (U. Arizona), NASA
Phobos from Mars Express
Credit: G. Neukum (FU Berlin) et al., Mars Express, DLR, ESA

Asteroid Belt

LJ-1 Little Joe 1
BJ-1 Big Joe 1
LJ-6 Little Joe 6
LJ-1A Little Joe 1A
LJ-2 Little Joe 2
LJ-1B Little Joe 1B
BA-1 Beach Abort
MA-1 Mercury-Atlas 1
LJ-5 Little Joe 5
MR-1 Mercury-Redstone 1
MR-1A Mercury-Redstone 1A
MR-2 Mercury-Redstone 2
MA-2 Mercury-Atlas 2
LJ-5A Little Joe 5A
MR-BD Mercury-BD
MA-3 Mercury-Atlas 3
LJ-5B Little Joe 5B
MA-4 Mercury-Atlas 4
MS-1 Mercury-Scout 1
MA-5 Mercury-Atlas 5
Mercury-Redstone 3
Mission Date: May 5, 1961

Mercury-Redstone 4
Mission Date: July 21, 1961
Suborbital flight, successful flight but the spacecraft sank shortly after splashdown.

Mercury-Atlas 6
Mission Date: February 20, 1962
Three-orbit flight that placed the first American into orbit.
Mercury-Atlas 7
Spacecraft: AURORA 7
Mission Date: May 24, 1962

Mercury-Atlas 8
Spacecraft: SIGMA 7
Mission Date: October 3, 1962

Mercury-Atlas 9
Spacecraft: FAITH 7
Mission Date: May 15-16, 1963
The last Mercury mission; completed 22 orbits to evaluate effects of one day in space.

Smallest planet in the solar system.

One Mercury solar day equals 175.97 Earth days.

It orbits around the sun in 88 Earth days at 50 km/sec- faster than any other planet in the solar system.

No moon or atmosphere.

Cratered surface similar to our Moon.

Has a magnetic field, which is 1% the strength of the Earth's magnetic field.

This field is very active and when it connects to the field in the solar winds it creates magnetic tornadoes.

Large Metallic Molten core
1800 to 1900 km
75% of the planet's radius.
500 to 600 km

The second planet from the Sun.

Similar to Earth in size, mass, density, composition, and gravity.

Covered by thick CO2 atmosphere, with sulfuric acid clouds. These might be associated with the atmospheric lightning on Venus.

Has a massive greenhouse effect, making it the hottest planet in the Solar System.

Is the brightest planet visible from Earth.
Mean surface temperature of about 470°C - hot enough to melt lead.

Has 90 times more pressure than Earth - enough to flatten a human being.

Wrinkled surface overflowing with hot lava due to geologic activity.

Sunlight appears orange, due to scattering of light by the atmosphere.

Rotates backward on its axis and has no magnetic field.

A Venera 13 Lander image of the surface of Venus.
Atmosphere: Why is the sky blue?
Core and Magnetic Field
Earth is the third planet from the Sun.

Has an atmosphere composed mostly of nitrogen and oxygen molecules.

When white light scatters off the gases in the atmosphere, it results in blue light preferentially being scattered across the sky.

The magnetosphere surrounds the Earth and protects us from the solar wind, cosmic particles, and gamma rays.
Dwarf Planets

Is a medium Star.

Our Solar System's Central Star.

Closest Star to Earth.

A huge sphere of ionozed gas (mostly hydrogen and helium).

About 1 000 000 Earths can fit into the Sun.

Core has a temperature of 27 million degrees.

Energy from Sun's core escapes to the radiative zone and then to the convection zone.
Sun Spots are areas on the surface with strong magnetic fields.

The surface of the Sun is called photosphere; this surface is 500 km thick.

Solar Flares: Large amount of radiation caused by coronal mass ejections.

Solar Winds: A stream of charged particles released from the outer layer of the Sun.

Asteroids, Meteors & Meteorites
Transits of Venus occur in a pattern that repeats every 243 years.
Helps the Earth become less 'wobbly' on its axis.

Heavily cratered surface.

Has a small core and no geological activity.

We always see one side of the Moon (it only rotates once on its axis for every rotation around Earth).

Light areas are called 'highlands' and cover 85% of the surface, and can span for a few kilometres.

Dark areas are maria - Latin for seas - basalt lava from 3.5 billion years ago.

Thought to have formed when a Mars sized object collided with the Earth - the debris accreted to form the Moon.
Contributes to the tides on Earth.
December 24, 1968: Apollo 8, first human beings to enter lunar orbit and see the far side of the Moon in person.

Humans first landed on the Moon on July 20, 1969.

The first man to walk on the lunar surface was Neil Armstrong, commander of the U.S. mission Apollo 11.

The first robot lunar rover to land on the Moon was the Soviet vessel Lunokhod 1 on November 17, 1970.

The last man to stand on the Moon was Eugene Cernan, December 1972.
Has 1/3 of Earth's gravity.

It has frequent global sand storms.

Evidence of gypsum - calcium sulfate dihydrate (used in drywall).

Orbits the sun.

Has enough mass to assume a nearly round shape.

Has not cleared the neighborhood around its orbit.

Is not a moon.
Meteors & Meteorites
Atmosphere and Core
Interesting Facts
Discovered by Voyager 1.
The rings consist of really tiny (about the size of smoke particles) ice particles and house small moons.

Is the most massive planet.

Has at least 63 moons.

If it was 80 times larger, it would be a star.

It's composition is similar to the Sun - helium and hydrogen.

It has the strongest magnetic field of any planet in the Solar System.

Jupiter, along with the other Jovian planets, formed with a deficit of rocky material and a large amount of gases, due to their proximity from the Sun.

Thus, Jovian planets are larger than terrestrial planets, have smaller cores, and larger atmospheres, along with slower orbital speeds.

Taken at York U
Visible clouds are mostly composed of ammonia.

The light and dark bands are created by strong east-west winds in the upper atmosphere.

Deep in the atmosphere, the pressure turns hygrogen into liquid, which is metallic and electrically conductive. This creates a massive magnetic field.

The Red Spot
Saturn was the most distant of the five planets known to the ancients.

Is similar to Jupiter in that it has a tremendous magnetic field.

Saturn rotates at around the same rate as Jupiter.

Taken at Yorku
Spring at Saturn's Poles
Storm at the North pole
Its atmosphere is similar to Jupiter - helium and hydrogen.

Similar to Earth, aurorae occur at its north and south poles.

Both have three main layers of clouds:
Upper layer: Ice crystals and ammonia
Middle layer: Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide
Lower layer: Ice crystals

Has such a low density that it can float on our oceans!
The only moon in the Solar System with an atmosphere.
Made of methane, it gives the moon a bluish outline.
Interesting Facts
First planet discovered using a telescope in 1781.

Uranus is tilted on its side, so that one of the poles is always facing the Sun.

One of the two ice giants in the Solar System.
Is composed mostly of helium and hydrogen with small amounts of methane and traces of water and ammonia.

Methane absorbs the red portion of sunlight, giving the planet its greenish-blueish hue.

60% of Uranus is icy material.

Of its 27 moons, Miranda is the strangest one. It is melting from the interior.

All of its moons are named after characters in Shakespere's plays.
Of Neptune's 17 moons, Triton is the largest.

Orbits the planet counterclock wise.

The surface temperature is -391 C.

Has geysers spewing icy material 8km in the air.
Has a very thin carbon dioxide atmosphere which contains traces of nitrogen.

Appears red due to iron-rich minerals that oxidize on the surface.

These minerals are picked up and carried around the planet by wind, where they contribute to the planet's reddish hue.
Most volcanically active body in the Solar System.

Surface is covered in sulfur.

Jupiter's gravitational field causes tidal effects on Io, causing magma to erupt to heights of 100 m.

Surface consists of hot silicate magma.

Surface is mostly water ice.

Evidence for a subterranean ocean of warm water.

Has twice as much water as Earth.

Streaks on the surface due to tectonic activity.
Largest moon in the Solar System, even bigger than Mercury!

The only moon with an internally generated magnetic field.
Surface is heavily cratered and ancient.
Rings consists of small particles of rock, dust, and ice.

Aurorae arise from the charged particles of the solar wind interacting with the Earth's magnetic field and colliding with the gases in our atmosphere.
Mars "Blueberries"
Iron-rich concretions that mark the Martian surface north of Victoria Crater. It is speculated that a layer of water once existed beneath this surface.

Photograph courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell/U.S. Geological Survey
Mars's Low Ridge

Photograph courtesy NASA/JPL/Cornell
Olympus Mons on Mars
Sulfur-rich rocks in the Columbia Hills on Mars stand out in bright blue in this false-color image from the Spirit rover. The rock's high sulfur content and softness are probably evidence of past alteration by water.
Sulfur-Rich Rocks on Mars
Photograph courtesy NASA/JPL/Cornell
Largest mountain in the Solar System, and is taller than three Mount Everests.

It is as wide as the entire Hawaiian Island chain, and flat like a pancake.
photograph courtesy NASA/JPL/Malin Space Science Systems
Has a rocky and dry surface similar to deserts on Earth.

Covered with impact craters and features small craters on top of larger ones, indicating an old surface.

Mars is not geologically active due to its thick and cooled crust.

There are features on Mars that suggest that there might have been geological activity in the past when it was relatively young.
Phases of the Moon
Colour of Clouds on Jupiter and Saturn depends on their temperature and depth in the atmosphere.

Brown clouds are the warmest and the deepest viewable layers .

Whitish clouds are cooler followed by the Redish hues in the upper atmosphere.

Neptune atmosphere:
79% Hydrogen
18% Helium
3% ammonia

Neptune recieves the least amount of energy from the Sun compared to other planets, and yet has the fastest winds in the Solar System.

Neptune has clouds of liquid methane.

Discovered by math.

IAU definition of a Dwarf Planet:
Saturn and its rings are best seen when the planet is at or near opposition.

The Cassini division is a gap 4500 km wide that seperates the rings of Saturn.
Saturn's rings can be seen in various positions at different times of the year.
Asteroids are made up of metals and rocky material.
Comets are balls of rock, ice and gas that grow tails as they approach the sun
As comets heat up, gas and dust are expelled and trail behind them
The Sun causes this tail to glow

Short period comets originate from the Kupier Belt
Long Peroid comets fly in from the outer solar System near the Oort cloud
The Solar System

Today, most asteroids orbit the sun in a tightly packed belt located between Mars and Jupiter, called the Asteroid Belt.
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