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AP Art History- Late Antiquity and Byzantine Art: Changes Over Time
Transcript of AP Art History- Late Antiquity and Byzantine Art: Changes Over Time
Simple, made of brick
Slightly more architecturally interesting than Old Saint Peter's Church.
Ornate: carvings on the ceiling, mosaics, and Corinthian colonnades.
Holding large masses for religious events
Showing the power and beauty of the Heavens
A tribute to Christ.
Mosaics have gold backgrounds- use of light and windows make the room light up. This is most likely a reference to the heavens and the divinity of Christ. Christ between two Angels Lamenting over the dead Christ Hagia Sophia Church Katholikon Exterior:
Multiple hemispherical domes
Walls with patterns (Islamic)
Dome= octagon formed by squinches, different visual effect
Play on light and shadow
Intricate paintings and carvings
Hold large numbers of people
Decoration and visual interest/appeal
Shape of a Greek cross with Theotokos, merging of cultures By Bridget Hampton
and Chaillé Biddle How did the architecture change to fit the evolving needs of the time?
How did the image of Christ change, and why? Images of Christ Architecture Late Antiquity, 240-504 CE Clothing:
Purple and Gold robes
Wearing Halo and holding Cross
Weight counter-balances position of head. Reconstructed view and plan of Old Saint Peter's, Rome Italy, begun ca. 319. Byzantium, 512-1410 CE Purpose:
Did not want their houses of worship to look like pagan shrines
Was used for congregational purposes
Simple and made out of brick
Buildings plan and elevation resemble those of Roman basilicas
Moved away from lavishing exterior sculptures
Inside though there were frescoes, mosaics, marble columns (taken from pagan buildings) and costly ornaments
Getting more lavish compared to the Christian house Images of Christ Architecture Clothing:
Christ wears simple, white clothes
Mary wears purple (divinity), onlookers and angels wear white and blue
Christ is lying down, dead
Onlookers are bowed towards, him, facing him The Good Shepherd, the story of Jonah, and orants, painted ceiling of a cubiculum in the Catacomb of Saint Peter and Marcellinus, Rome, Italy, early fourth century. Setting:
On a ceiling of the Catacomb tomb
Illustrating key episodes from the Old Testament
Simplicity was key
People are wearing just plan robes
No real background image
People wearing Roman clothing
Relaxed Choir and apse of San Vitale with mosaic of Christ between twp angels, Saint Vitalis, and Bishop Ecclesius, Ravenna, Italy, 526-547. Clothing:
Purple robe with a golden halo
Central figure – only one wearing purple
Angels around him are wearing white robes – showing divinity, heavenly
Christ is in the center – seated at the orb of the worldThis is a church – he is the central figure above the altar which is still seen today
Gold around make it look heavenly because of the light Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, aerial view of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey, 532-537. Purpose:
This is the Church of Holy Wisdom
Justinian intended this new church to rival all other churches ever built
It is about 270 feet long and 240 feet wide – the dome is 180 feet in diameter and its crown rises some 180 feet above the pavement
Overtime this building changed – huge buttresses were added after the Ottoman conquest of 1453
Use of light that floods inside the building that is what distinguishes the Hagia Sophia from equally lavish Roman buildings – like the PantheonThe dome inside rides as a halo of light from window’s in the domes base Setting:
Outdoors, natural and peaceful
Balanced, 3 sheep on each side (Holy Trinity)
Naturalistic Christ as the Good Shepard, mosaic from the entrance wall of the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, Italy, ca. 425. Neptune and Amphitrite, wall mosaic, in the summer triclinium of the House of Neptune and Amphitrite, Herculaneum, Italy, ca. 62-79 CE. Lamentation over the dead Christ, wall painting, Saint Pantaleimon, Nerezi, Macedonia, 1164. Virgin (Theotokos) and Child, icon (Vladimir Virgin), late 11th to early 12th centuries. Tempera on wood, original panel 2' 6 1/2" X 1' 9". Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. Reconstructed view and plan of Old Saint Peter's, Rome Italy, begun ca. 319. Interior of the Katholikon (looking into the dome), Hosios Loukas, Greece, first quarter of 11th century. Setting:
Unrealistic blue sky, hilly landscape- emotion
Intended to induce grief/sadness
Byzantine style (frontal, flat) Katholikon, Hosios Loukas, Greece, first quarter of 11th century. Plan of the Katholikon, Hosios Loukas, Greece, first quarter of 11th century. Big Picture:
Images of Christ began as propaganda-esc images of a Good Shepherd and leader, morphed into emotional, more "modern" religious depictions.
Architecture of Christian churches retained their purpose of holding large numbers of people and became progressively more ornate, both inside and outside, as time passed. The End Exterior and Interior of Sant-Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, Italy, dedicated 504.