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Cells

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by

Dana Rodney

on 6 September 2016

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Transcript of Cells

CELLS
Cell Theory
~All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
~Cells are the basic unit of structure and organization of all living organisms.
~Cells arise only from previously existing cells, with cells passing along copies of their genetics to daughter cells.
Cells are the basic unit of life
There are 2 types of cells
Prokaryotic
has no organelles
Eukaryotic
Has organelles
~Cells that have no membrane bound organelles.
~Typically unicellular organisms, like bacteria
~These cells DO have ribosomes in them!
Cells that do contain membrane bound organelles.
Most organisms are made of eukaryotic cells
What are the two types of eukaryotic cells?
Plant
Animal
The “gatekeeper” of the cell
Made of a Phospholipid bilayer
Transports proteins
Separates the environment of the cell from everything else
Aids in support and structure of the cell
Is found in BOTH plant and animal cells
Plasma Membrane
Organelles found in a Eukaryotic Cell
Plasma Membrane
Nucleus
Nucleolous
Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough and Smooth)
Ribosomes
Golgi Body
Vesicle
Mitochondria
Cytoplasm and Cytoskeleton
Lysosomes
Centrioles
Chloroplasts
Vacuole
Cell Wall
Essential Questions
• If you discovered an alien specimen, how could you determine if it is living or nonliving?

• If given a specimen, how could you determine cell type?

• How do the cellular organelles function as a whole?
Nucleus
Like a factory manager
“boss” of the cell
Contains a nucleolus
Where DNA is stored
Where ribosomes are synthesized
Controls everything that happens in the cell
sub organelle of the nucleus.
Function: production and assembly of ribosome components.
It's shaped as a sphere and is surrounded by a layer of chromatin.
Nucleolus
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Like the line in a factory, these organelles are always producing things
Two Types of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Smooth ER
Rough ER
Smooth ER functions in carbohydrate and lipid synthesis.
In the liver, it functions as a detoxifier.
Rough ER makes proteins
It has ribosomes on it.
Golgi Body
The Golgi Body modifies, sorts and packages proteins for transport.
It is like a UPS Warehouse
Vesicle
The vesicle transports the protiens to other areas in the cell that need it, or to other cells.
It is like the UPS truck.
Mitochondria
“Power plant” of the cell
Converts sugars to usable energy by breaking the bonds to produce the energy
We will discuss that in cellular respiration
Also known as the “Powerhouse” of the cell
Cytoplasm
semifluid substance in the cell where organelles are located
In prokaryotes, many functions occur here
Cytoskeleton
~Structures that provide support for the cell
~These structures disassemble (break down) and reassemble (go back together) to allow for movement
Lysosome
“Garbage man” of the cell
Contains digestive enzymes
Digests old organelles, food, even bacteria and viruses
Centrioles
Aid in cell division
Located near the nucleus
Made of microtubules and microfilaments
Chloroplasts
“Solar panels” of the cell
Trap energy from the sun and convert it to chemical energy
ONLY located in plant cells
Vacuole
Provides temporary storage of materials (water, food, ions, ect.)
Important in plants because it stores water
Cell Wall
Inflexible barrier that provides support for plant cells.
Organelles found in plant cells
Plasma Membrane
Nucleus
Nucleolous
Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough and Smooth)
Ribosomes
Golgi Body
Vesicle
Mitochondria
Cytoplasm and Cytoskeleton
Lysosomes
Centrioles
Chloroplasts
Vacuole
Cell Wall
The Choloroplasts and Cell Wall are ONLY found in the PLANT Cell!!
Organelles found in animal cells
Plasma Membrane
Nucleus
Nucleolous
Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough and Smooth)
Ribosomes
Golgi Body
Vesicle
Mitochondria
Cytoplasm and Cytoskeleton
Lysosomes
Centrioles
Vacuole
Cells Review
Types of Transport
Passive
Active
Passive Transport:
Requires no energy input.
Two Types:
Diffusion
Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion
Movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. (substance moves along the gradient.)
Think of the air freshner example
Osmosis:
Diffusion of water
Facilitated diffusion:
diffusion that needs some help getting from place to place.
Think air freshner example expanded
Active Transport:
Transport that requires energy
Example: Sodium/Potassium Pump (Na+/K+ pump)
Full transcript