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Communication Styles

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Robert Hill

on 13 September 2015

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Transcript of Communication Styles

COM10003 - Learning and Communication Online
Communication Styles
An aggressive communicator is a person that expresses themselves with either physical or symbolic actions. While most people think that aggressive communication is only a destructive form of communication, it can also be a constructive form (Infante, 1987a. Cited in Ranser & Avtgis).
Aggressive Style of Communication
Manipulative Style of Communication
It requires being forthright about your wants and needs while still considering the rights, needs, and wants of others. (Jackson, 2015)
Assertive Style of Communication

passive — aggressive

communication style is often referred to as one of the most confusing and frustrating styles. (Coghlan & McIIduff, 2000). The individual can present a smiling veneer, seem co-operative but they are working to manipulate and sabotage outcomes/goals. Their aggression is not generally expressed in a direct manner but in an indirect manner. They may be silent at times, use sarcasm to express their frustration or gossip with others to work behind the scenes. 

This type of communication is often displayed by a person who has not found a way or developed skills to express their frustration or aggression. It could be a one off display or it can be an embedded into their psyche, beliefs and value systems. (Coghlan & McIIduff, 2000)

Passive Aggressive

Style of communication
Submissive Style of Communication
Can you
me ?
Lets work
on it
Behavioural Characteristics

Lack of enthusiasm
Always Apologetic and often feels as though they are imposing when asking for something they want
Avoiding confrontation
Difficulty in taking responsibility or making decisions
Yielding to the preferences of other
Opting out
Feeling like a victim

(Newton, 2015)

Non-Verbal Behaviour

Lack of eye contact
The voice is soft and almost inaudible
The person will try and make themselves as small as possible and lower than others in meeting environments
Submissive behaviour is marked by a refusal to try out initiatives, which might improve things.

(Newton, 2015)

Language Style Examples

"Oh, it's nothing, really."
"Oh, that's all right; I didn't want it anymore."
"You choose; anything is fine."

(Newton, 2015)

Using the assertive style of communication is also a great way to compliment, support
and encourage someone you
care about.
When being Assertive ALWAYS use
your feelings in your communication.
When you
I feel/I felt
What I want in the future is
What I would prefer is
Value yourself and your rights
Believe you deserve to be treated with respect and dignity at all times.
Stop apologizing for everything.

Identify your needs and wants, and ask for them to be satisfied
Don't wait for someone to recognize what you need
Understand that to perform to your full potential, your needs must be met.
Find ways to get your needs met without sacrificing others' needs in the process.

Stand up for yourself and confront people who challenge you and/or your rights.
Receive criticism and compliments positively
Accept compliments graciously.
Allow yourself to make mistakes and ask for help.
Accept feedback positively – be prepared to say you don't agree but do not get defensive or angry.
Learn to say "No" when you need to

Know your limits and what will cause you to feel taken advantage of.

Acknowledge that people are responsible for their own behavior
You can only control yourself.
Allow yourself to be angry, but always be respectful.
Do say what's on your mind, but do it in a way that protects the other person's feelings.
Developing Your Assertiveness
(Jackson, 2015)
Physically aggressive communication is when force is displayed through body actions such as the hitting, pushing, kicking or slamming of objects or people. This is usually associated with a destructive form of communication.
Symbolic communication is shown by verbal and non-verbal actions, such as facial expressions, bodily
or the tone of voice that is used. These can be associated with either a destructive or a constructive form of communication.
This style of communication relates to a person who avoids conflict at all costs and wishes to please all other parties. A submission style is characterized by a person who feels less important that all other members of a team and believes that all other team members have more rights and therefore more to offer the team. A submissive person will sit in the background and agree with all other team members without conflict. (Newton, 2015)

People that communicate in a destructive manner could be seen as bossy, manipulative
and unwilling to accommodate other ideas.
People may use physical and symbolic gestures if they want to use something that belongs to another person. If refused, the person asking may use threatening actions towards the owner such as pushing and yelling abuse until they get what they want.
While these show the destructive sides of aggressive communication, there are positive ways to communicate aggressively. A form of this is assertive communication (Infante, 1987a. Cited in Ranser & Avtgis).
This type of communication is not usually a constructive way to work in a team environment. By acting like this, team members can be put off side and may not be willing to contribute. A much better way would be talking things through in a quite and mild tone, and backing ideas with arguments that support it.

Viorika, (2011).
Autismspot, (2013).
This style of communication refers to the skilful management, or influencing, of others to achieve a specific outcome sought solely by the manipulator (Coons & Weber, 2014). This style is usually viewed as inherently negative however whether the act of manipulation is positive or negative often depends on the individual’s intent.

Using manipulation when communicating with children as a figure of authority is often seen as morally acceptable (Coons & Weber, 2014). As a parent you might choose to exude a false sense of joy and excitement over eating vegetables to encourage your child to eat healthier. The intent of the manipulator in that situation is to encourage healthy responses and actions from the child. In this scenario manipulative communication has the potential to be effective and has positive undertones.

Using manipulation when unconcerned with the other person’s interests, attitudes and well-being can involve ethically compromised behaviours. This usually involves removing, limiting, usurping, or subverting the freedom of another person (Coons & Weber, 2014). As a partner you might know that your husband doesn’t want to go on a group outing so you might choose to ask him to the event in front of the group, knowing it would be uncomfortable for him to say no in front of everyone. In this scenario manipulative communication, whilst potentially effective, is focused on limiting the freedom of another person and thus has negative connotations.
(Streeter), 2015
Contributors : WIKI GROUP 2

Introduction and Conclusion : Jamie Whiting
Aggressive Communication: Matthew Ward
Assertive Communication: Chris Medcalf
Manipulative Communication: Jade Brown
Passive / Aggressive Communication : Kim Sneddon
Submissive Communication : Robert Hill
Non-Verbal Cues
Rolls their eyes.
Uses a sweet, soft tone
of voice.
Steps into personal space & slightly touches people.
(Coghlan & McIIduff, 2000)
Characteristics of Passive-Aggressive Communication Style
Displays co-operativeness but resistance to task completion.
Gossips with peers.
Scorns people of authority.
Two faced: smiles to your face but talks behind your back and stops outcomes being reached. (Coghlan & McIIduff, 2000)

This style of communication can occur in one off situation or be habitual but it causes stress, anxiety, confusion, and loss of both productiveness and outcomes. Relationships whether personal or professional can be damaged as it becomes and unauthentic interaction.
(Coghlan & McIIduff, 2000)
Submissive, Aggressive, Passive-Aggressive, Manipulative and Assertive communication are best understood when knowing what situation requires which of the five styles.
Each style in its own right can be utilised as an effective skill set. Knowing one’s own style can help draw on ones strength’s, lead to personal growth opportunities, collaborative learning and effective communication.
As important as it may be to understand each one of the five basic styles of communication singularly, to be an effective communicator you should understand how the different styles can work well together. Kennedy & Nilson (2008) believe that when being a member of a team that is expected to achieve excellence you must optimise the value and use of all member’s diverse skills and experience.
MacGregor (n.d) suggests that there are 11 different characteristics that make an effective team, each with its own style of communication. Some examples of what an effective team needs to have are; a clear unity of purpose, the group is self- conscious about its own operations, the group has set clear and demanding performance goals, finally that the leadership of the group shifts from time to time.
Investigating each communication style allows learners to become more self-aware, work collaboratively in a team and ensure a cohesive environment when placed in a team.

”People communicate in clumsy ways because it’s easier than communicating expertly.” (Douglas, 2015).
Learning and understanding different communication styles can add value to the participation made by each individual.
A commonality between the communication styles is that each can have both a positive and negative effect.
Collaborating each communication style also identifies different leadership styles and behaviors. All behaviors and styles can be complimented by each other and work collectively when tackling group tasks.
Each person is an individual learner and can contribute to any situation. Understanding the differences in the different learning styles will help you become a more effective learner. Each learner may also adopt a variety of different learning styles depending on the situation.

All forms of communication can have a positive influence on someones behavior and help inspire effective teamwork and collaboration.

Istock photo (2012)
(Untitled image of a woman feeding children carrots. 2015)
(Untitled image of a woman holding a man on puppet strings
. 2015)

Are You An Assertive Communicator? [Image] Retrieved on August 4th from http://technoesis.net/assertive-communicator

Autismspot. (2013). Expressions. [Image]. Retrieved from http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-03-people-facial.html

Buczek, B., (2014) Passive Aggression - Office Problem #75.

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Douglas, E,. (2015). Straight talk. Retrieved from http://mams.rmit.edu.au/owx2c90pize9.pdf

Jackson, K. (2015). Assertiveness. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.compages/article/Assertiveness.htm

Kennedy, F,. & Nilson, A,. (2008), Successful strategies for teams: Team member handbook. Retrieved from http://www.clemson.edu/OTEI/documents/teamwork-handbook.pdf

MacGregor, D. (n.d), Characteristics of effective teams: The Human side of enterprize. Retrieved from: http://web.stanford.edu/class/e145/2007_fall/materials/collins_effective_teams.html

Newton, C. (2015). The Five Communication styles. Retrieved from http://www.clairenewton.co.za/my-articles/the-five-communication-styles.html

Rancer, A. S., & Avtgis, T. A. (2006). Argumentative and aggressive communication: Theory, Research, and Application. Thousand Oaks, U.S.A: SAGE Publications, Inc.

RMIT University (2015). Assertive communication. [Image]. Retrieved from http://mams.rmit.edu.au/owx2c90pize9.pdf

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