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The relationship between stress, anxiety, arousal and sports

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tom palmer

on 11 November 2014

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Transcript of The relationship between stress, anxiety, arousal and sports

The relationship between stress, anxiety, arousal and sports performance
Stress, anxiety and arousal.
Stress, anxiety and arousal are experienced by all sports performers, but they can affect them in different ways. These psychological factors can have both negative and positive effects. It is important to be aware of appropriate strategies for dealing with the effects they may have in order to achieve a maximum level performance.
Assessment Criteria
P3 - Describe Stress and anxiety, their causes, symptoms and effect on sports performance.

P4 - Describe three theories of arousal and the effect on sports performance

M2 - Explain three theories of arousal and the effect on sports performance.
`A mentally or emotionally upsetting condition which occurs in response to adverse external influences and is capable of affecting physical health or well being'
Bizley and Clark (2011)
Types of Stress
Two terms have been introduced in sport to explain stress:

Causes of stress
Internal External Occupational
Stress often plays a positive role in sports performance. However, too much stress can have a very negative effect on performance.
This is the good type of stress that comes from the challenge of taking part in something you enjoy, but have to work hard for. A sports performer uses this to train harder and achieve higher levels, so it is effectively a factor of intrinsic motivation. These individuals actively seek out stressful situations as they like the challenge of pushing themselves to the limit. This can help them increase their skill levels and focus their attention on aspects of their chosen sport.
This is the bad type of stress as it is linked to reacting to negative demands such as anxiety, worry and apprenhension.
'stress that helps an athlete to perform'
'extreme anxiety related to performance'
Causes of stress are unique to each athlete. It is common to have a number of athletes in similar situations yet for them to have entirely different stress responses to those situations
illnesses like infections
psychological factors i.e. worrying about something
not having enough sleep
being overly self-critical or being a perfectionist
the environment in which you find yourself, e.g too noisy, too quiet
negative social interactions with other people e.g. somebody being rude to you
major life events, e.g. a death in the family
day-to-day hassles, e.g. travel to and from games, training schedules.
Occupational causes of stress are linked to your job. In a sporting situation, having a disagreement with a coach or manager and subsequently being dropped from the team could cause you to suffer from stress.
Hatem Ben Arfa cancels meet and greet with fans after Newcastle warning

• Event with fans regarded as a provocative by Alan Pardew
• France playmaker remains exiled in Newcastle reserves
Symptoms of Stress
Cognitive symptoms are linked to an individual's mental state and can include:

poor concentration
poor attention to detail
feeling helpless
Somatic symptoms are linked to an individual's physical state and can include:

chest tightness
breathing difficulty
Behavioural symptoms can include:

decreased levels of activity
increased levels of smoking and alcohol consumption
relationship conflicts
overeating with resultant weight gain
Effects on sports performance
Stage 1: Demand E.G. Last penalty in a shoot-out
Stage 2: Perception of demand by athlete Positive Perception Negative Perception
(Challenge) (threat)
Stage 3: Increased arousal levels Eustress Distress
(Increased energy & motivation) (Increased worry)
Stage 4: Outcome Increased performance Reduced performance

1. Understand the assessment criteria

2. Know what stress is and be able to define stress.

3. Understand and be able to describe 2 different types of stress.

4. To understand the causes of stress and the different categories these can fall under.

5. Know the symptoms of stress.

6. Understand and be able to describe stress and its effect on sports performance.
Are you assessment ready?
P3 Task 1a - Describe stress, its causes, symptoms and effect on sports performance
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