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Heredity and Genetics - Grade 6
Transcript of Heredity and Genetics - Grade 6
T – thymine
G – guanine
C – cytosine Genetics
DNA: The Double Helix Forensics – solving crimes
Identification of people
Genetic Diseases DNA Profiling
Uses Every cell in one organism has the same pattern DNA Patterns DNA has a sugar and a base.
There are four bases A, T, G, C
A fits only with T
G fits only with C Structure of DNA DNA is a double helix Structure of DNA James Watson & Francis Crick
Discovered the structure of DNA First X-rayed by Rosalind Franklin History Determines DNA sequence DNA Profiling (fingerprinting) Sometime genes are not just dominant and recessive
Codominant genes – both genes are expressed (shown)
Ex. Cattle having both red and white hair
Incomplete dominance – some genes blend together
Ex. Red flowers crossed with white flowers produce pink flowers. Codominant and Incomplete Dominance Phenotype is the physical appearance of an organism, what it looks like
Ex. tall plants, short plants
Genotype is the combination of genes present within the DNA of the organism
Ex. Two tall genes, or one tall and one short gene, or two short genes Phenotype and Genotype Offspring receive one set of genes from each parent, therefore there are two sets of genes for each trait.
Each gene is in the same place on each chromosome.
If the dominant gene is present, then the dominant trait will be shown.
There must be two recessive genes present for the recessive trait to be shown. Dominant and Recessive Genes Mendel’s Conclusion:
Offspring inherit traits in pairs of factors, one from each parent.
Dominant trait – characteristic that is shown in the hybrid generation. (tallness)
Recessive trait – characteristic hidden in the hybrid generation, but appears in later generations, when no dominant factor is inherited. (shortness) Mendel and the Peas Began with purebred plants.
Purebred show the same traits for many generations when pollinated naturally.
He cross-pollinated tall pea plants with short pea plants.
Called the P (parent) generation
All the new plants (offspring) were tall.
The new plants were hybrids
Hybrids are plants produced by crossing purebred parent plants that each have a different form of the same trait. Mendel and the Peas Studied peas to discover how traits were inherited.
Peas grow quickly and have traits that are easy to trace.
Have either yellow or green seeds
Are tall or short
Have white or purple flowers. Mendel and the Peas The hybrid plants were self-pollinated
The new plants were both tall and short
For every 3 tall plants there is 1 short plant Mendel and the Peas Mendel and the Peas The study of how traits are inherited. (how characteristics are passed from parents to offspring)
Gregor Johann Mendel – the father of genetics. Genetics Uses
Looking for cures for genetic diseases
Looking for treatments for other illnesses
Changing plants to make them more useful to us. Genetic Engineering Cystic Fibrosis
Affects the lungs and digestive system. Genetic Disorders and Diseases Sickle Cell Anemia
Sickle red blood cells cannot move through the body
Body lacks oxygen
Causes pain Genetic Disorders and Diseases Some diseases are inherited. They are passed from person to person.
Some may be caused by receiving a recessive gene from each parent
Some may be caused by a dominant gene.
Most cannot be cured. Genetic Disorders and Diseases Changing or moving some of one organism’s genes into another organism. Genetic Engineering Cystic Fibrosis
Mucus in the lungs is too thick, clogging the air passages.
Food cannot be digested properly. Genetic Disorders and Diseases Sickle Cell Anemia
- Affects red and white blood cells. Genetic Disorders and Diseases Could be beneficial and harmful.
We don’t know what the long term effects could be. Genetic Engineering Down Syndrome
Have one extra chromosome (47).
Causes developmental disabilities. Genetic Disorders and Diseases