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Copy of Georgia in a Divided Nation- Derek Nixon

SS project

derek nixon

on 16 December 2012

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Transcript of Copy of Georgia in a Divided Nation- Derek Nixon

Georgia in a Divided Nation By Derek Nixon Chapter 6 Section 2 The head right system was established by the Georgia government. It gives the head of each family 1000 acres in the frontier to start a farm. Land lotteries were run by the government. Tickets were sold and one person was chosen to receive a plot of government land. The Yazoo Land Fraud happened when there was a trial over who owned the land surrounding the Yazoo River, a tributary of the Mississippi River. Land companies in Georgia convinced the Georgia legislature to pass a bill that allowed land companies to buy and sell land around the Yazoo. #1 Georgia was forced to buy back all the land from the people that bought land from the companies. The Georgia government lost about $4 million because the people did not want to give the land back. It also caused bad relations with other states. #2 All the members of the legislature that were involved with the land fraud were forced to resign. #3 Land lotteries and the head right system were the main ways that the Georgia government distributed land in the late 1700s and early 1800s. #4 The Louisiana Purchase was the transaction between the US and France that doubled the size of our country. #5 Section 3 New technological advances such as the cotton gin, the mechanical reaper, and rail roads increased production speed, decreased demand, lowered prices, and increased the need for slaves. #6 Cotton and tobacco were the two major crops grown in Georgia because of high demand and new technology made production of them easy and cheap. #7 Section 4 UGA is the oldest land grant university which is a college where the government pays for the land to put the school on. It started off as Franklin College. Louisville was one of the first capitals in Georgia. It was built for the purpose of being a capital. It was modeled after Philadelphia. The capital was moved from Lawrenceville because people in the western part of the state wanted a closer capital. After England left many new churches were established in the frontier. Most Georgians became Baptists and Methodists. #8 Section 6 #9 Sequoyah created the written version of the Cherokee language. The Cherokee language is a syllabary which is a language where each symbol represents a syllable or mora (a unit that determines a syllables weight). Chapter 7 Section 5 #10 The Cherokee and the settlers shared the same newspaper that was written in both Cherokee and English. The Cherokee also took after the settlers; many important officials had similar houses and plantations to the settlers. Their constitution was also written with the US constitution in mind. The Creek and the settlers were constantly waging war on each other over territory. The Yazoo Land Fraud was selling off creek land which only added to the building up of the Creek War. #11 Alexander McGillivray was a Creek chief who sent warrior to settlers’ camp to cause terror. This led to a small series of attacks and skirmishes known as the Oconee war. William McIntosh signed a treaty selling off all creek land in Georgia without consulting the other creek tribes. He was later murdered by a rival tribe as punishment. John Ross was a Cherokee chief that went to congress to protest the Indian removal. In the Dahlonega gold rush gold was found on Cherokee land which only created another reason for settlers to push the Indians out of their land. Reverend Worchester was the white post master in New Echota. A bill was passed prohibiting white men from living on Indian land unless they pledged their allegiance to the Georgia government. Reverend Worchester refused to pledge his allegiance and when asked to leave he would not. He was jailed but not before taking his trial to Supreme Court. John Marshall, the chief justice at the time, ruled that Worchester be set free but both Andrew Jackson and the Georgian government refused to enforce his ruling. Andrew Jackson, the president at the time, also signed the Indian removal act that required all Indians to move to an Indian reserve in Oklahoma. The path that the Indians traveled from northern Georgia to Oklahoma is known as the trail of tears. Section 2 #12 The south was very unorganized and believed in strong local governments. They supported low tariffs because they imported most of their goods from other countries. There was also no formal education, only those who afford it hired private tutors. The north wanted a strong central government. They relied on manufacturing and exporting goods to make money so they supported high tariffs to boost their economy. There was also an organized school system. The lowest ranks were the slaves and free blacks. Then came the yeoman farmers, small, independent substance farmers, and overseers, they watch and oversee the day to day of the slaves. Next come people who provide services or have a business. This group includes entertainers, merchants and service workers. Then the farmers with few slaves and small farms. Finally at the top rank goes to planters with many slaves and large plantations they control most wealth in Georgia and make up less than 5% of the population. #13 #14 Slaves and slave rights was one of the major differences between the south and north. The south wanted to keep the slaves to help do work on large plantations. The north wanted slaves to be treated like equals. The Missouri compromise was adopted because there was an 11 to 11 balance of slave and free states in congress but the territory of Missouri wanted to join the union as a slave state so congress allowed Maine into the union also to once again balance the amount of slave and free states in congress. The compromise of 1850 was very similar to the Missouri compromise. California wanted to join the union as a free state but that would again upset the balance of slave and free states in the union. There were lots of intense debates that were threatening the union staying together. The compromise of 1850 promised the south that the territories of Mexico and Utah could decide if they wanted to be a slave state. There was also a bill passed that stated that all runaway slaves will be returned to their owners. The north got California as a free state. Texas also agreed to not annex New Mexico thus making another potential free state. Most Georgians didn’t want to accept the compromise but the congress realized that accepting the compromise was the only way to keep the union together. The Kansas-Nebraska act allowed residents of new states to vote on whether they want their state to be a free or slave state. This resulted in many fights between pro-slavery and free soil groups. The Dread Scott case was when a slave was taken from Missouri, a slave state, to Illinois and Wisconsin, free states. He claimed that since he had lived in free states he should be free. The case went to Supreme Court but they ruled that since he never stopped serving his master he never technically was free. Congress also had no right to stop or enforce slavery in territories. Dread Scott The Whig party that used to control politics in the US was beginning to split up. The Whigs that wanted to abolish slavery went and joined the newly formed Republican Party along with some anti-slavery democrats. #15 In the election of 1860 many of the political parties were caught up in their own drama over whether to try and please the north or south. The anti-slavery Republican Party quickly chose Abraham Lincoln to be their candidate. The Republican Party consisted of mostly northerners who supported many things that were popular among northerners. Although the north loved the Republican Party none of the things they supported would benefit the south. #16 #17 After Lincoln’s elections many previously pro-union southerners suddenly started thinking and talking about whether they should succeed or not. Immediately after the election legislators from Georgia were called to a special session to discuss what the future of Georgia was. The legislators ended up waiting to see what South Carolina and other surrounding states did. Once South Carolina succeeded Georgia and many of the other southern states quickly announced their becoming of independent nations. The seceded states met in Montgomery, Alabama and formed The Confederate States of America. #18 Alexander Stephens was opposed to secession because he thought that someone being elected president for a few years was not a good enough claim to abandon your country. He thought that the state of Georgia should stand with the union until it finally goes down. #19 The states in the confederation were Georgia, South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, and Florida. #20 The three main reasons that led to the civil war were slavery, sectionalism, and states’ rights. Chapter 8 Section 1 #21 The civil war began when the confederacy captured Fort Sumter. The fort was running low and ammo and men. The north was in the process of resupplying them with ammo and men but the south attacked before the provisions could get there and the previously northern fort had to surrender its self to the south. #22 The north had over half of the nation’s farms and factories. They also had about 80 percent of the nation’s deposits. The south had nothing. They newly formed, unorganized, and their side of the country consisted of mostly frontier. There was almost no manufacturing in the south at the time so they were dependent on importing and exporting goods. #23 Civil War strategies The ways settlers could get land in Georgia What happened to the members of the Georgia legislature involved in the Yazoo land fraud? The problems caused by the Yazoo land fraud The two methods used in Georgia to distribute land in the late 1700s and early 1800s The 1803 transaction between France and the US that doubled the land area of our country How technological developments had an impact on Georgia’s growth The two crops produced in Georgia and why they were in great demand The establishment of the University of Georgia, Louisville, and the spread of Baptist and Methodist churches in Georgia Sequoyah and his syllabary The relationship among the settlers, the Cherokee, and the Creek The events leading up to the removal of the Cherokee and the Creek from Georgia The differences between the North and the South during the antebellum period, including economic differences The importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War Southern class structure The birth of the Republican Party The election of 1860 and the reasons why southerners were against Lincoln’s election to the presidency The debate over secession in Georgia and the steps leading to Georgia’s secession The reasons why Georgia’s Alexander Stephens was so against secession The states of the Confederate States of America Three historical reasons that led to the Civil War The event that began the Civil War The advantages and disadvantages of the North and the South The union blockade was when the union surrounded the confederate states and blocked the major ports with iron clad ships. The south was still able to import and export goods through handsomely paid blockade runners. The anaconda plan was when the union blocked the Mississippi river to cut off the western confederate states. The plan did not work because the south quickly recaptured the river. The south had a plan called the king cotton diplomacy. They planned to stop exporting cotton to Europe hoping that they would have no cotton for their textile mills and would help the south. The north convinced the European companies to use Egyptian cotton instead of southern cotton. The video starts off talking about the anaconda plan and the union blockade. It then moves on to some interesting facts about how the north pushed the confederates out of Tennessee gaining control of the major rivers in the area. Section 2 #24 The Antietam battle took place on September 17, 1862. Both sides were evenly matched as far as troop numbers but the north pulled a victory. It was the second bloodiest battle in the civil war. The bloodiest battle was Gettysburg. Like in Antietam both sides were fairly evenly matched as far as troops went but the north won this historical battle. #25 The emancipation proclamation was passed by Lincoln. The goal of the proclamation was to stop either slavery or the war. It stated that the confederacy could surrender and keep its slaves or continue the war and loose its right to slavery. #26 The first battle in Georgia was at Fort Pulaski. The fort was built in 1847 for coastal defense. It was made of brick which soldiers thought would stop cannon balls but the cannons could shoot straight through the brick wall and into the fort. The confederate was forced to surrender when the brick fortifications began collapsing. #27 Union General Rosecrans fought confederate General Braxton Braggs south of Chattanooga. Braggs won and forced the union to retreat but several weeks later Grant showed up with more union troops and beat Braggs at Chattanooga and forced the confederate into Dalton. Grant left to attack Lee and left 112,000 troops with General Sherman. Sherman took those troops and started a campaign towards Atlanta. General Johnston, who had replaced Bragg, constantly faced Sherman as he made his way towards Atlanta. Johnston could not stop Sherman due to low amounts of troops and supplies but he did slow Sherman by blocking paths and burning bridges. Jefferson Davis disagreed with Johnston’s strategy and replaced him with General Hood who set up camp in Atlanta. Hood waited for Sherman in Atlanta. The armies battled for several months before Hood and the citizens of Atlanta evacuated. Several days after Hood left the union made it to Atlanta. They camped there for several weeks before setting it on fire and beginning the famous “March to the Sea” #28 Braggs did not follow up on the retreat of the union and did not know that they had received reinforcements and were returning to capture Chattanooga. #29 Sherman destroyed civilian infrastructure in Georgia on his march to the sea because that’s what supported the confederate armies. #30 In the civil war sides stopped exchanging prisoners early on in the war so overcrowding was often an issue. Andersonville prison was an exceptionally bad prison. It was dirty, had no cover from weather and not enough provisions for all the prisoners. Over 13,000 prisoners died in Andersonville alone. Chapter 9 Section 1 #31 The Freedman’s Bureau was founded to help former slaves get ready to face the free world. They provided teachers, jobs, clothing and food to help the freedmen who didn’t know how no earn money or live without a master. #32 Lincoln had a two part reconstruction plan for the south. 1st he thought that all southerners, except high ranking military and government officers in the confederacy, should be pardoned. 2nd when 10% of the voters in each state had taken an oath of loyalty the state could again form a government and be allowed into the union. Many people disagreed with letting the southern off so easily. One bill, the Wade-Davis bill, was passed by congress but Lincoln saw it as a way to punish the south and didn’t sign it. After Lincoln’s assassination vice-president Johnson took over and continued Lincoln’s plan for reconstruction. He made it so that government officials from the confederacy and people owning more than $20,000 in land had to apply directly to the president for a pardon. He later punished the south by passing the 13th amendment prohibiting slavery, making them nullify their ordinances of succession, and they could not reimburse the people who had given money to the confederacy. Section 2 #35 The 13th amendment abolished slavery but there was still a lot of discrimination towards former slaves. The 14th amendment granted freedmen citizenship and made state governments give them equal protection of the law. The only way southern states could rejoin the union was to ratify the 14th amendment. Only Tennessee did so the rest of the southern states were put under military rule. The 15th amendment allowed any male citizen, white or black, to vote. Many southern states, including Georgia, didn’t like the 15th amendment so they set up blocks such as literary tests and a polling tax designed to keep African Americans from voting. The of Georgia governor asked the federal government to help prevent this and the federal government passed the Georgia act putting Georgia under military rule for the 3rd time. #34 #37 The convention for Georgia was held in Milledgeville during fall of 1867. There were 36 African American delegates, 9 were carpetbaggers (northerners who moved south after the war), and most were scalawags (southerners who supported the Republicans). The convention was moved to Atlanta because hotels in Milledgeville refused rooms to the African American delegates. #39 During reconstruction Georgia was still relying on agriculture for most of its economy. The increasing cotton production also brought industry to Georgia. Textile mills, banks, and shipping yards were reopening and were allowing other businesses to start. Atlanta, after being burned to the ground was rebuilt and became the new capital. #36 The southern states did not want to ratify the 14th amendment because it extended the citizenship of African Americans and allowed them to vote. The states also didn’t like that they had to write a new constitution allowing former slaves to vote and be citizens. Freedmen were also allowed to be delegates at the conventions. There were 36 African American delegates at Georgia’s convention in 1867. #38 During reconstruction 29 African Americans to the Georgia House of Representatives and 3 to the Georgia state senate. Henry McNeal Turner was one of the first African Americans elected to the Georgia General Assembly. #41 (finally! ) #33 President Johnson chose James Johnson to be the temporary governor of Georgia. The state held a constitutional convention and created the constitution of 1865. It abolished slavery, nullified the ordinance of succession, and pleased President Johnson. Charles Jenkins was then elected governor of Georgia because he was the only candidate. #40 African Americans were allowed back into the general assembly in 1870 after being asked to leave in September of 1868. The general assembly ratified the 14th and 15th amendment and Georgia was allowed back into the union in July of 1870. Characteristics of the battles of Antietam and Gettysburg The Emancipation Proclamation The first Georgia battle of the Civil War The Battle of Chickamauga and the Battle of Atlanta The military mistake that cost Southern forces the initiative after the Battle of Chickamauga The reasons why General Sherman attacked civilian infrastructure during his infamous March to the Sea Andersonville Prison The purpose of the Freedman’s Bureau The presidential plans for Reconstruction The actions taken by Georgia to rejoin the Union The Black Codes made it so that any unemployed freedman could be jailed so many freedmen took the first job they saw no matter the pay. The Ku Klux Klan discouraged freedmen from exercising their new found rights. The KKK would intimidate freedmen, trash their property, and sometimes even kill the freedmen. Share croppers were landless whites and blacks who would get land, framing supplies, a house, and food from a plantation owner. In return the share cropper would give the owner of the land a portion of the crops. Tenant farmers usually had some supplies and their own seeds and fertilizer. They would use the plantation’s land and at the end of the year give a percent of the money or crops to the owner of the land. Tenant farmers usually made some profit because they had some stuff already and didn’t get it from the owner of the plantation. The impact of the Black Codes and the Ku Klux Klan The impact of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the US Constitution The reasons why the majority of Southern states refused to ratify the 14th Amendment (US Constitution) Constitutional Convention of 1867 African Americans in Georgia politics during Reconstruction The economy during Reconstruction The end of Reconstruction in Georgia The differences between a sharecropper and a tenant farmer
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