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Skeletal system

The Structure and Function of
by

Michael O'Donnell

on 28 April 2010

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Transcript of Skeletal system

What Holds Us Together The Skeletal System: Structure and Function The human body when it is full grown has about 206 bones. Babies are born with about 350. The reduction in number of bones occurs because of fussion of bones together over time. More than half of the bones we have are found in our hands and feet. Quick facts about bone number! Function of the Skeleton It is a place for muscle attatcment
It is the framework for our body It provides a ridged frame which the soft organs of the body can connect to. It protects our vital organs For instance the brain is protected by the skull and our heart lungs and other important organs are protected by the ribs. It is a production sight for red blood cells Blood cells are produced by the marrow located in some bones. An average of 2.6 million red blood cells are produced each second by the bone marrow to replace those worn out and destroyed by the liver.

It stores inorganic salts for the body Calcium and phosphorus are examples of these salts There are 4 types of bones...
Long bones are longer than they are wide and work as levers. Short bones are short, cube-shaped, and found in the wrists and ankles. Flat bones have broad surfaces for protection of organs and attachment of muscles Irregular bones are all others that do not fall into the previous categories Parts of the bone Periosteum Articular Cartilage Epiphysis Diaphysis Medullary Cavity Marrow The periosteum is a dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps (invests) all bone, except that of the articulating surfaces in joints which are covered by a synovial membrane. The medullary cavity (medulla, innermost part) is the central cavity of bone shafts where red bone marrow and/or yellow bone marrow (adipose tissue) is stored This is the hyline cartilage found on the end of bones. is the flexible tissue found in the hollow interior of bones. In adults, marrow in large bones produces new blood cells Yellow Marrow Red Marrow consists mainly of hematopoietic cells consists mainly of fat cells Red blood cells, platelets and most white blood cells arise in red marrow. Both types of bone marrow contain numerous blood vessels and capillaries. At birth, all bone marrow is purple. With age, more and more of it is converted to the yellow type. about half of adult bone marrow is red. In cases of severe blood loss, the body can convert yellow marrow back to red marrow to increase blood cell production. Hematopoietic cells are ones that form the bloods cellular components Hematopoietic cells regenerate themselves Cells that constitute the bone marrow stroma are:
1 fibroblasts
2 macrophages
3 adipocytes
4 osteoblasts
5 osteoclasts
6 endothelial cells forming the sinusoids The rounded end of a long bone is the main or mid section (shaft) of a long bone. this usually contains the marrow There are 2 types of Marrow
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