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The Periodic Table

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Nancy Cope

on 27 September 2016

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Transcript of The Periodic Table

the periodic table
the elements are arranged by increasing atomic number
elements with similar properties are grouped together
the atomic number is how many protons are present in the nucleus of an atom
this leads to trends both across and down the table
Groups
columns on the periodic table are called groups
each group of the periodic table has the same number of valence electrons
this causes the group to have similar properties
Remember
valence electrons are the outer most electrons. they are available for bonding and responsible for reactivity
remember
Alkali Metals
lose one electron to form a +1 ion
Noble Gases
do not react
Halogens
gain one electron to form a -1 ion (anion)
Alkaline Earth Metals
lose two electrons to form a +2 ion
Chalcogens
gain two electrons to form a -2 ion
Periods
rows on the periodic table are called periods
there are special groups of these too
Actinides
elements #89-103
Lanthanides
elements #57-71
Transition Metals
the d and f block of the periodic table
includes lanthanides and actinides
the bottom row of the periodic table
shiny
shiny, highly reactive metals
diatomic molecules
are all gases
can lose different amounts of electrons
elements to the left of the stair case on the periodic table
lose valence electrons to form cations
Metals
Metalloids
Nonmetals
Atomic Radius
Electronegativity
the tendency of an atom to attract an electron
increases across a period
Ionization Energy
The Periodic Law
The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic number
meaning: protons are responsible for how the atom behaves
This leads us to four trends of the periodic table:
Atomic Radius
cation = positively charged ion
hard dense materials
can be shiny, malleable, ductile
have very high melting and boiling points
typically a solid at room temperature
mercury is a liquid at room temperature
good conductors of electricity
found along the staircase on the periodic table
have properties of both metals and nonmetals
commonly used in semi-conductors
used as insulators
astitine
polonium
telluruim
antimony
arsenic
germanium
silicon
found as a solid, liquid or gas at room temperature
on the right hand side of the stair case on the periodic table
intermediate conductors of electricity
poor conductors of electricity
commonly gain electrons to form anions
anion = negatively charged ion
each period represents an energy level
have 8 valence electrons
have the most stable arrangement of electrons
do not gain or lose electrons because they have a full energy level
found in group 17
astitine
iodine
bromine
chlorine
fluorine
found in group 16 of the periodic table
have 6 valence electrons
polonium
tellurium
selenium
sulfur
oxygen
found in group 2 of the periodic table
reactive metals
commonly form hydroxides when reacted with water
most reactive metals
form hydrogen gas when reacted with water
radon
xenon
krypton
argon
helium
neon
radium
barium
strontium
calcium
magnesium
beryllium
groups 3-12 on the periodic table
form salts with group 1 metals
decreases down a group
more protons in the nucleus are pulling the electrons
greater effective nuclear charge
electrons are further away from the nucleus
more shielding
Before we begin, let's have a couple vocabulary words
shielding effect
effective nuclear charge
inner electrons block the full pull of the protons in the nucleus from the outer electrons
the pull from the protons in the nucleus as felt by the electrons
atoms with many protons in the nucleus and low energy levels have a high effective nuclear charge
atoms with few protons and many energy levels have a high shielding effect
Electron Affinity
the ability of an atom to attract and hold an electron
increases across a period
decreases down a group
more protons in the nucleus are pulling the electrons
greater effective nuclear charge
electrons are further away from the nucleus
more shielding
the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom
increases across a period
decreases down a group
more protons in the nucleus are pulling the electrons
greater effective nuclear charge
electrons are further away from the nucleus
more shielding
the size of the atom
decreases across a period
increases down a group
more protons in the nucleus pull the electrons closer
more energy levels of the electrons cause the atom to be more spread out and take up more space
Electron Affinity
Electronegativity
Ionization Energy
francium
cesium
rubidium
potassium
sodium
lithium
found in group 18
group 1 elements
most reactive non-metals
boron
man-made
highly radioactive
brittle
low melting and boiling point
Reactivity
these trends influence the reactivity of the elements
the reactivity decreases down a group, and increases across the row
the reactivity increases down the group and decreases across the row
the noble gases are nonreactive
different for metals and nonmetals!
generally for metals
generally for nonmetals
most reactive: Fluorine and Francium
elements in the same period have valence electrons in the same energy level
Metallic Character
how much the element behaves like a metal
decreases across the periodic table
This should make sense... the elements are becoming non-metals
increases down the column
bigger atoms behave more "metal-ly"
shiny, silver, hard, electrically conductive, thermally conductive, dense
Full transcript