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Interdisciplinary Approach

FdSc / BSc Sport Performance
by

Alice Tocknell

on 29 September 2016

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Transcript of Interdisciplinary Approach

Interdisciplinary Approach
What is an interdisciplinary approach?
“more than one area of sport and exercise science working together in an integrated and co-ordinated manner to problem solve.”



This problem-based approach is based upon realisation that:

Performance is based upon a set of functionally inter-linking variables
However, knowledge of how different variables inter-link is imperative and under researched (and often in practice relies upon the role of experiential knowledge).

Where did interdisciplinary originate.....
Sport Council
(now split into Sport England, and UK Sport)
Case Study
A theoretical method of implementing multiple match-day strategies that enhance the physical and technical performance of rugby players.
Multidisciplinary
- group of people from sub-disciplines working together on a common problem.
Applied practice
Interacting disciplines
Alice Tocknell
alice.tocknell@hartpury.ac.uk

Learning Outcome:
Adopt an interdisciplinary approach to apply relevant knowledge to sports performance environment development

(BASES online, 2015)
(Burwitz et al., 1994).
BASS
(British Association of Sports Sciences - now BASES)
1992
commissioned
1994
Published -
"Future Directions for Performance-Related Research. An Interdisciplinary Approach"
in Journal of Sport Sciences
Focused on elite athletes and applied sport science research for high level performance
Reviews in Physiology, Biomechanics and Psychology also completed.
Interdisciplinary
- more than one area of sport and exercise science working together in an integrated and co-ordinated manner to problem solve.
Multi/Interdisciplinary Teams
Physiology Biomechanics Psychology
What are the subdisciplines of....
Interdisciplinary
- more than one area of sport and exercise science working together in an integrated and co-ordinated manner to problem solve.
Multidisciplinary
- group of people from sub-disciplines working together on a common problem.
Athlete undertaking
injury rehabilitation
Exercise Physiologist
Sport and Exercise Nutritionist
Biomechanist
Sports Psychologist
Physiotherapist
Doctor / Surgeon
Experts work in parallel rather than symbiosis
Each expert would make recommendations
Rehab programme in collaboration with other disciplines may be over looked
Role conflict?
Advice regarding training programme
Diet to alleviate any imbalance that may weaken bone/muscle structure
Technique modification
Coping with injury, CB strategies to assist with rehab adherence
Assessment, Treatment, Rehabilitation
Post-op care
Research into adherence to training programmes in speed-skating.

Adherence could be predicted by self-motivation score - skaters who reported low self motivation scores missed significantly more training sessions as a result of injury.
(Knapp
et al
, 1985)
An early example...
Integration
- the application and combination of different disciplines.
Restructuring
- methodologies, theories and practices from one discipline are borrowed and transposed into another discipline to restructure the approach to a problem
Bridge building
- the coming together of specialist knowledge from different disciplines
The skills required for this approach include:
(Russell et al, 2015)
Utilizing opportunities on match days where performance can be optimized through acute physiological and nutritional strategies
1. Enhancing physical performance outcomes
Appropriately designed warm up
Heat maintenece strategies
Post-activiation potention (PAP)
Ischemic pre-conditioning (IPC)
Prior exercise
Hormonal priming
2. Improved technical (i.e. skill) performance
Nutritional interventions - caffeine, creatine, carbohydrate ingestion.
Example
Morning exercise

Circadian rhythms influence anaerobic performance.

Testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) implicated in mediating performance in elite athletes (Cook and Crewther, 2012)

Early morning peak, transient decline throughout the day

Morning resistance training session improved afternoon throwing performance -
6 hour window
where by performance in the afternoon could be influenced (Ekstrand et al, 2013)

Other studies have found similar results - (Cook et al, 2014) and (Cook et al, 2013)
Early evidence suggests that a bought of morning exercise might provide a priming effect, which could improve performance later in the day (Russell et al, 2015)
Example
Creatine

Found to improve cognitive deficiencies induced by sleep deprivation (McMorris et al, 2006).

Acute dose of creatine consumed 90mins before a match may benefit the skilled performance of rugby players, particularly those who are sleep-deprived (Russell et al 2015)
Through the combination of findings additional considerations were made to match day preperation
Considerations for change - Match-day practices are structured and rigid - modification should compliment rather than replace
(Russell et al, 2015)
What match day strategies currently exist?

Create a timeline
K.O
-1 hour
-2 hours
- 3hours
- 4 hours
- 5 hours
- 6 hours
Consider multi / interdisciplinary teams
Consider a performance environment of your choice...

What approach is taken?

What are the benefits and limitations to the approach?
What disciplines are discussed here?

Who is this information useful for?

What are the implications for practice?
Ohio State: D'Angelo Russell
NBA Draft
To the seminar
Bring 1 research article that incorporates 2 or more disciplines working together.
References
Burwitz, L., Moore, P. M. and Wilkinson, D. M. (1994). Future Directions for Performance-Related Research. An Interdisciplinary Approach. Journal of Sport Sciences, 12, 93-109.

Twist, C., and Wordfold. (2015) The science of rugby. Routledge, Oxon.

Russell, M., Cook, C.J., and Kilduff, L.P. (2015). Match day strategies to enhance the physical and technical performance of rugby player. In Twist, C., and Wordfold. (2015) The science of rugby. Routledge, Oxon.

Youtube video: Sport Science: D'Angelo Russell (HD)
1. Enhancing physical performance outcomes
Appropriately designed warm up
Heat maintenance strategies
Post-activiation potention (PAP)
Ischemic pre-conditioning (IPC)
Prior exercise
Hormonal priming
20minutes of recovery reduces effect of warm up on subsequent exercise
Can include external heat source. Half time re-warm strategy recommended
Pre-loading. Consideration for substitutes from tactical perspective
Restricting, and allowing blood flow with the purpose to enhance muscle function. IPC
could
benefit 60mins prior to competition. Not all studies successful
Within 75 min, watch videos and recieve feedback from coach - potential influence hormonal changes (T) and performance response.
2. Improved technical (i.e. skill) performance
Caffeine
Creatine
Carbohydrate ingestion
Acute dose of creatine 90 minutes prior to performance could benefit, especially sleep-deprived players.
Shown to enhance concentration, cognitive function, decision making and reaction time.
Acute dose 90mins prior to KO.
Caffnated gum containing 300mg immediately prior, half time and during match itself.
Carbohydrate swilling - facilitation of improvement still to be determined, but early indications suggest could benefit.
Would this work in an applied setting?

What considerations would need to be made?

How is this managed?
Full transcript