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Art Nouveau Movement Presentation
Transcript of Art Nouveau Movement Presentation
TOBIN Art Nouveau is a decorative-art movement which originated in Victorian England. The art movement was centred in Western Europe, though it is regarded as an internationally known style of art. WHAT DOES “ART NOUVEAU” MEAN?
Before the term "Art Nouveau", “le style moderne” was used in France, which means "the modern style". Most countries were similar to referred to the movement as ‘Modern’, ‘ Contemporary’ or “new” in their own languages.
The name "Art Nouveau" is French for "new art".
It is also known as “Jugendstil” which is German for "youth style".
Those two most popular names that we know the movement by came from Le Maison de l'Art Nouveau (A gallery named “The House Of New Art) in Paris and from the magazine Jugend in Munich,Germany. Both of which promoted and popularized the style. This front cover of an 1896 edition of the German magazine Jugend is decorated in Art Nouveau motifs. Jugend was strongly associated with the style and the magazine's name inspired the German term for the movement, Jugendstil. photograph of the famous 'House Of New Art' in Paris. This photograph is from the 1800's The idea behind the movement began to take form when a man called John Ruskin, criticized the standards of The Great Exhibition of 1851. John Ruskin was an English art critic and social thinker, who’s essays on art and architecture were extremely influential in the Victorian and Edwardian eras. SO HOW DID IT ALL BEGIN? Coloured engraving of Ruskin (right) Queen Victoria opens the Great Exhibition in the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London, in 1851 Th1.harmonious e Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations or simply The Great Exhibition, was an international exhibition that took place in London, from 1 May to 15 October 1851. It was the first in a series of World's Fair exhibitions of culture and industry that became a popular 19th-century feature. After the exhibition, Ruskin harshly criticized the fair, expressing strong abhor and disapproval of the products shown in the exhibition which were mass produced. Ruskin called for a return to craftsmanship inspired by a romantic view of the middle-ages and rejected the division that had arisen between the so-called fine arts and the decorative arts. Ruskin soon revitalized the crafts; and hoped to develop an alternative to what he saw as “the horror of factory labour”, as well as improving every day objects by making them beautiful and harmonious. Ruskin advised architects, craftsmen and painters to return to nature for their forms and inspiration. Ruskin’s ideas were taken up by his disciple, the craftsman, poet, painter and architect – William Morris, who began to paint and follow the Pre-Raphaelite painters dreamy interpretation of the medieval past and nature. These styles of art were seen as a rebellion against the academic traditions of painting religious and historic figures which seemed disconnected from real life. William Morris, painted by George Frederic Watts - 1870 WILLIAM MORRIS The Willow Bough print by william morris William morris founded a company in
1861, to produce the types of objects he wanted to see in every home. this became morris & CO. William was able to bridge the divide between artists and craftsmen by employing his friends among the pre-raphaealite painters to decorate furniture and design tapestries, fabrics and chairs. the company was able to produce a complete range of home furnishings, in a uniform style, to achieve the overall harmony and beauty which ruskin had talked about. “my work is the embodiment of dreams” – WILLIAM MORRIS Characteristics of Art Nouveau Art nouveau infuses different art forms with a decorative organic flow. Some of these art forms include: Architecture In architecture, curved or arched windows and doors are common, and decorative mouldings, colours and patterns are used on the walls of buildings. heavy use of metal within structures have also been used (see metal work).Art Nouveau designers selected and 'modernized' some of the more abstract elements of Rococo style, such as flame and shell textures, they also used highly stylized organic forms as a source of inspiration, such as seaweed, grasses, and insects. a great example of art nouveau architecture is the Casa Batlló in spain, which was built in the year 1877 and remodelled in the years 1904–1906. Period photo of the great parlor of Casa Batllo (Rococo is an 18th century style which developed as artists gave up their symmetry and became increasingly ornate, florid, and playful. Rococo rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture. As shown in the picture left- The Rococo Basilica at Ottobeuren (Bavaria) a view from the outside close up view of the windows. Metalwork Jewellery Glass Wrought iron has been seen as a significant material in Art Nouveau, both in structures and decoration. Silver and gold were used for upper classes in dining wears and jewellery, and copper and bronze for other house hold items such as tea sets and jewellery boxes. Staircase of the House of Victor Horta, a good example of metal work used within structures and also used decoratively. Cutlery set by Josef Hoffman For centuries, fine jewelry has mainly used diamonds and gem stones as the focus. However, jewellery in the art nouveau period introduced the use of semi-precious stones and opals, as well as heavy use of enamel- which is a huge part of costume jewelry today. Paris and Brussels defined the art of jewellery, French glass maker and jeweler René Lalique used grass and dragon flies which were inspired from Japanese art. The use of sculpted, enameled gold, moulded glass, horn and ivory were key materials used in art nouveau jewellery.
Photographed left is a brooch by René Lalique made out of gold, enamel, moonstones, and diamonds, BIBLIOGRAPHY ART NOUVEAU – By Maria Costantino
ART NOUVEAU STYLE- By William Hardy
http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/art_nouveau.aspx - R. Schmutzler (1964), M. Rheims (1966), A. Mackintosh, Symbolism and Art Nouveau (1978).
http://fc06.deviantart.net/fs27/i/2008/183/1/d/Border_Art_Nouveau_15_by_inspyretash_stock.jpg Louis Comfort Tiffany in New York, Charles Rennie Mackintosh in Glasgow are two of the most well known artists. Glass work has also been used heavily within architecture and jewellery. Glass work is usually stained glass that is very colorful, and detailed. I feel its usually very reminiscent of Pre-Raphaelite work for the use of jewel like colors and females. photographed left is Louis Tiffany's 1890 window Education
The main characteristics of Art Nouveau are usually flat, decorative patterns, intertwined organic forms of stems or flowers with tendrils and flowing curved lines. The most frequently used subjects in art nouveau work are lavish birds and flowers, insects and beautiful females. The art work can sometimes show erotic or romantic imagery, like in Gustav Klimt’s ‘The Kiss’ as shown left. Most Art Nouveau artists work within many different types of artistic form, for example, mackintosh worked within glass and jewellery. These characteristics are visible in all Art Nouveau forms (such as architecture/furniture), but are always definitely shown in paintings and graphics. furniture Art nouveau furniture is usually made from organic materials, like wood and heavily decorated fabrics. It has shared characteristics with architecture, with curved edged and engraved with flowers and vines. good example of art nouveau furniture is of that made by William Morris, like the chair seen photographed right. So how has
Art Nouveau inspired
fashion? I believe that fashion has been strongly influenced by art nouveau; because without it we would not have the prints or shapes that we have today. I believe that flock patterns and florals that are now an essential print of spring/summer collections are thanks to the art movement- Not to mention the use of curvaceous lines. The rising popularity of non precious metals and stones being used in jewellery was also thanks to the movement, which changed the way jewellery, was made. Without art nouveau, I feel there wouldn’t be the large selection of affordable costume jewellery we have in fashion shops today, or the decoration that we now see on home wares and personal belongings. Art nouveau introduced beauty and detail into all forms of day to day life; be that in architecture, jewellery, fashion or graphics, as well as experimenting with the different materials we can use in every day life. Does it still affect us today?