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Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

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Barbara Andress

on 31 December 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

Learning Objectives
Identify the major types and uses of microcomputer, midrange, and mainframe computer systems.
Outline the major technologies and uses of computer peripherals for input, output, and storage.
Identify and give examples of the components and functions of a computer system.
Understand the history and evolution of computer hardware.
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Identify the computer systems and peripherals you would acquire or recommend for a business of your choice, and explain the reasons for your selections.
I. Introduction
All computers are systems of Input, Processing, Storage, Output, and Control Components
A Brief History of Computer Hardware
Joseph Jacquard, 1801 – “Jacquard’s Loom” accurately reproduced patterns on a loom
Herman Hollerith – Hollerith’s Punch Card system to record census data in late 1880’s; 1911 – merged with competitor to form IBM
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator), 1946 – the world’s first electronic digital computer
1950’s – Transistors were invented and replaced tubes
1958 – Integrated Circuit (“chip”) was invented
1970’s – 1980’s
Further miniaturization of circuits
ALTAIR 8800 – the first programmable micro-computer
Apple Computer and IBM PC
Types of Computer Systems
Computers come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and computing capabilities –
Mainframes

Midrange (obsolete due to powerful microcomputers)

Microcomputers

Microcomputer Systems (Personal Computer)
Network Computers – designed specifically for use with networks and the Internet; low TCO (total cost of ownership)

Information Appliances – Web-enabled devices for accessing information from anywhere – cell phones, PDAs, handheld PCs
The most important category for businesses and consumers, exceeds the power of many mainframes
Workstations – support mathematical and graphical demands

Network Servers – support telecommunications and resource sharing

Computer Terminals – any device that allows access to a computer
Case Study and Questions
Corporate PC Criteria
Why laptops instead of desktops?

Why would a change in OS be disruptive?

What are the strengths vs. risks of cabled vs. wireless PCs?
Technical Note: The Computer System Concept
Understanding the computer as a system is of vital importance
The Computer is MORE than a collection of electronic devices:
Input – convert data into electronic form for entry into the system
Processing – the CPU (Central Processing Unit) consists of the Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU – performs the arithmetic and logic functions) and the Control Unit (controls the rest of the computer)
Output – converts electronic information into human-intelligible form
Storage – store data and instructions for processing
Control – the other component of the CPU manages the activities of the rest of the computer
Technical Note:
The Computer System Concept
Moore’s Law:
Moore’s Law 1965 – the number of transistors on a chip will double every 18-24 months; more broadly interpreted – the power or speed of a computer will double every 18-24 months

The Price would halve in that same time, which has also proven to be true

Recent statistics indicate this time has decreased to 12 months

Peripherals
Peripheral - a generic name for all input, output, and secondary storage devices not part of the CPU but part of the system
Online – electronically connected to and controlled by the CPU
Peripheral
Peripheral
Offline – separate from and not controlled by the CPU
Input technologies
Input Devices – keyboards, mice, light pens, trackballs, touch screens
Input technologies
Speech Recognition Systems – understands spoken commands/words
Discrete Speech Recognition – speak each word separately
Continuous Speech Recognition – recognizes conversationally-paced speech
Speaker-Independent Voice Recognition – understands speech from a voice it has never heard before
Input technologies
Optical Scanning – converts text or graphics to digital input for direct entry of source documents
Input technologies
Other Input Technologies
Magnetic Stripe – on credit cards
Smart Cards – contain an embedded chip
Digital Cameras
Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) – used in banking industry
Case Study and Questions
Gati Limited: Real-Time Delivery with Handheld Technology
What is a POD? Why is it important?
How long did it take to return a POD?
Why and How does this help Gati?
How long did ROI take?
Case Study and Questions
Forget the ATM: Deposit Checks Without Leaving Home
What does federal Check 21 Act allow?

What is the concern of consumers remotely depositing checks?

What basic security is provided?

What limits/restrictions are placed on the consumers?
Output Technologies
Most popular are video
and printed output
Output Technologies
Video Output – most popular form of output
Printed Output (Hardcopy) – most popular after video; still required for some legal purposes
Storage Tradeoffs
Tradeoffs are Cost vs. speed vs. capacity,
but all regularly increase in speed, cost and capacity
Primary Storage (Random Access Memory or RAM) – Semiconductor memory, Volatile; faster but more expensive
Secondary Storage – Magnetic Disks, Optical Disks, Magnetic Tape; Non-Volatile; slower but cheaper
Computer Storage Fundamentals
Binary Representation –
Two-state, on/off, +/-, 0/1
Bit –
Binary digit, 0/1
Byte – Grouping of bits (typically 8 bits/byte), represents a single character
ASCII –
formalized code determining what byte values represent which character
Storage capacities –
kilobytes (KB)
megabytes (MB)
gigabytes (GB)
terabytes (TB)
Direct and Sequential Access
Direct Access – Random Access Memory (RAM) and Direct Access Storage Devices (DASD) – Direct Access and Random Access are the same concept; locate an address on the storage device and go directly to that location for access to the datum

Sequential Access – All tape devices are accessed serially – device must be read one record at a time from the first stored datum until the desired datum is located
Semiconductor Memory
RAM (Random Access Memory) – volatile, may be read and over-written
ROM (Read Only Memory) – non-volatile, may be read but not over-written or erased; PROM and EPROM may be reprogrammed
Flash (Jump) Drives – solid-state memory
Semiconductor Memory
ReadyBoost – Microsoft product that uses any flash product as a cache to increase Windows access speed
Solid-State Drive (SSD) – transistor device created to be accessed like a hard drive; no moving parts, non-volatile, much faster access speed
Case Study and Questions
Work 7x24:
Collaboration Technology for Small Companies
What services does Work 7x24 provide?
What group do they focus on?
Why does this group need these services?
Why might this group have been overlooked by larger organizations providing similar services?
Magnetic Disks – the most common form of secondary storage
RAID Storage (Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks) – interconnected groups of hard drives, fast speeds, fault tolerant (redundant backups) through networks

Magnetic Tape – slow speeds, but inexpensive for large amounts of backups
Optical Disks – CD-ROM, CD-R, DVD-R (cannot be erased or re-written); CD-RW, DVD-RW (may be erased or re-written)
Magnetic Tape & Optical Disks
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
RFID – for tagging and identifying mobile objects (store merchandise, postal objects, sometimes living organisms); provides information to a reader when requested
Passive – no power source, derives power from the reader signal
Active – self-powered, do not need to be close to the reader
RFID Privacy Issues – may be used as spychips; gathers sensitive information about an individual without consent
Case Study and Questions
Kimberly-Clark: Secrets to RFID Success
What percentage of K-C promotional materials arrived on time?
How has RFID technology helped with this?
Why is “Real-Time” important to Kimberly-Clark?
What has the short-term payback been? Why do you think this is important?
Case Study and Questions
Computers Will Enable People to Live Forever
What does Kurzweil think will happen in the near future?
What time-frame does he place on this?
What other advances does he see in the near future?
Which of these advances do you think might be the most important?
How might these affect Business in the future?
How might you capitalize on tis for business purposes?
Key Terms:
Midrange, Mainframe and Suptercomputer Systems
Key Terms:
Microcomputers
Workstation Computers
Network Computers
Computer Terminals
Network Terminals
Network Computers
Information Appliance
Key Terms:
Computer System
Key Terms:
Central Processign Unit
Primary Storage Unit
Secondary Storage
Key Term:
Moore's Law
Key Terms:
Peripheals
Key Terms:
Off-Line
Key Terms:
Online
Key Terms:
Pointing Devices
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Key Terms:
Speech Recognition
Key Terms:
Optical Scanning
Key Terms:
Magnetic Stripe
Key Terms:
Binary Representation
Key Terms:
Bit
Key Terms:
Byte
Key Terms:
Storage Capacities
Key Terms:
Direct access
Sequential Access
Key Terms:
Storage Trade-Offs
Key Terms:
Semiconductor Memory
Random-Access Memory (RAM)
Read-Only Memory (ROM)
Key Terms:
Magnetic Disks
Key Terms:

RAID
(redundant arrays of Independent disks)

Magnetic Tape
Key Terms:
Magnetic Tape
Key Terms:
RFID
(radio frequency identification)
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware
Corporate PC Criteria
Full transcript