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Transcript of The Reformation
King Henry VIII
Born 1509 - Died 1547
Born 1483 - Died 1546
Former lawyer and monk
Answered the overwhelming question, "What must I do to be saved?"`
Born 1484 - Died 1531
Swiss educated peasant
Influenced by Christian Humanism
Ordained a priest in 1506
Became a Cathedral Priest in Zürich in 1518
Born 1509 - Died 1564
Among the second generation of Protestant reformers in France.
Born into a Roman Catholic family.
Converted to Protestantism after experiencing a religious crisis.
Highly influenced by Martin Luther.
Reformation and the Wars of Religion
Queen Mary I
Born 1516 - Died 1558
Born to King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon.
Was determined to bring Roman Catholicism back to England.
Formed an alliance with Spain.
Was given the nickname "Bloody Mary" for having approximately 300 Protestant heretics burned at the stake.
Trying to get a son as an heir.
Divorced each wife as she did not give him a boy.
Church would not let him divorce his wife, so he started the Church of England.
God destined people to either be sent to Heaven or Hell
Church of England
Established 1534 by Henry VIII
With the Act of Supremacy
King was the supreme head of the Church of England
The Pope was no longer the head of the church in England
Anyone who denied it could be punished...
Political splits in countries over religion
Some leading to war
Took the most to Luther's ideas
Half the country turned Lutheran
The other half remained Catholic
Calvinist reformer of Scotland.
Believed Geneva was "the most perfect school of Christ on Earth."
Due to Calvin's success in Geneva, the city became a vibrant center of Protestantism.
Became a spokesman for the Reformation in Scotland.
Imprisoned for his defiance toward the Church of England.
Purely Gospel preaching
Start of the Swiss Reformation
Civil unrest in Zürich
Leading to a public debate
Catholics were not prepared to defend their view
Zwingli and his followers won the debate
"Master Zwingli" asked to continue his preaching of the Gospel and Sacred Scripture
Dominant form of Protestantism in France
Calvin believed that people were immoral
Necessitated the need for God's salvation
Five Points of Calvinism
More Reforms in Zürich
Zwingli's Church supervised by the state
Removed images and relics from churches
All major Catholic ideas removed
Trying for Unity
Zwingli's movement feared the Hapsburgs allying with the Catholics
Zwinglians and Lutherans needed to unify to defend themselves
Yet they couldn't agree
"This is my body."
"This is my blood."
1559- Knox returns to Scotland to supervise preparation of the constitution and liturgy of reformed church
George Wishart- great influence on John Knox
Wishart was burnt at stake 3/1/1546
Knox was body guard of Wishart
Five Points of Calvinism
Total Depravity (Original Sing)
Unconditional Election (God's Election)
Limited Atonement (Particular Redemption)
Irresistible Grace (Effectual Calling)
Perseverance of the Saints
Swiss Civil War - 1531
Swiss Protestants vs. Catholic Cantons
Ulrich Zwingli killed in battle
"Got what he deserved."
Revived best features of medieval Catholicism
Mysticism and monasticism
Regeneration of religious orders
Catholic Sects Working Against Protestants
Capuchins emerged as an effective force
Theatines (1524)- emphasis on reforming the secular clergy and encouraging them to fulfill their duties
Founded orphanages and hospitals
Ursulines (1535)- focused on establishing schools for girls
Chief instrument of the Catholic Reformation
Jesuits - Society of Jesus
Founded by Spaniard, Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556)
3 major activities Jesuits pursued
Established highly disciplined schools
Propagation of the Catholic faith among non-Christians
Determined to carry the Catholic banner and fight Protestantism
Succeeded in restoring Catholicism in some areas
Knox in Scotland
A Challenger Appears
Thomas More - former lord chancellor
Loyal to the Pope -> Treason
Could not accept victory of the state over the Church
More was beheaded in 1535
Same as the Catholic Church
No reform changes
Only administrative change
King now the head of the church and not the Pope
War of Catholics vs. Protestants
Because of unrest between Lutherans and Zwinglians
Resulted in Zwingli's death
1535 - Pope Paul III - audacious step- appointed a reform commission to study the condition of the church
Report - blamed church's problems on the corrupt policies of popes and cardinals
Pope Paul calls for a Council of Christendom
Council of Trent
Met in three major sessions 1545 and 1563
Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings
Only the Church could interpret Scripture
Faith and good works were necessary for salvation
Seven sacraments upheld
Belief in purgatory and in the efficacy of indulgences confirmed
Hawking of indulgences prohibited
Established theological seminaries in every diocese for the training of priests
1542 - Research to ferret out doctrinal errors
Started by Pope Paul III
Continued by Pope Paul IV
Even more fiercely
Created List of "Forbidden Books"
Reformation Impact on Society
- Family -
Less celibacy = more marriages
Marriage was the best way to control sexual intercourse
Luther argued: sex in marriage allowed one "to avoid sin"
Calvin: every man shouldn't get married "so long as he is fit to observe celibacy"
Role of Women- to obey husband and bear children [part of divine plan (said by Luther and Calvin)]
Reformation Impact on Society
- Education -
Martin Luther: all children should have the chance to receive a state provided education
Urged cities and villages in Saxony to build schools paid for by the public
German Protestants established the gymnasium (aka secondary school) where humanist emphasis on liberal arts based on instruction in Greek or Latin was combined with religious instruction
Reformation Impact on Society
- Religion -
Abolished indulgences, veneration of relics and saints, pilgrimages, monasticism, and clerical celibacy
More private, individual prayer, and family worship
Some Protestants tried to eliminate customary forms of entertainment:
Puritans - drinking in taverns, dramatic performances, and dancing
Dutch Calvinists - denounced the giving of gifts on Feast of Saint Nicholas
French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)
Ultra-Catholics (Guise family)- opposed Huguenots
Huguenots- French Calvinists
Guise's could recruit and pay for large armies and receive support from Jesuits and the papacy
Causes of the War
Towns and provinces- willing to join a revolt against the monarchy
Resented the growing power of monarchial centralization
Nobility willing- many were Calvinists- important base of opposition
Breakout of War (1562)
Massacre began after the killing of prominent Huguenot leaders; 3,000 Huguenots dead after three days, thousands more killed in provincial towns
Henry saved his life by promising to turn Catholic
1576- Ultra-Catholics formed "Holy League" to exterminate heresy and seat the true Catholic champion, Henry (Duke of Guise), on the French throne
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre (1572)
The War Begins (1562)
The Ultra-Catholics form
the Holy League (1576)
War of the Three Henries (1588-1589)
Duke of Guise massacred the peaceful Huguenot congregation
1560s- Huguenots became defensive, and eventually became impossible to defeat
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre (August 24 - 27 1572)
Catholic and Calvinist parties reconciled through marriage of sister of Charles IX and Henry of Navarre (the political leader of the Huguenots)
Henry's mother, Jeanne d'Albret, introduced Calvinist ideas
The Guise family convinced the king that this gathering for the wedding posed a threat
King Henry III assassinated (1589)
Edict of Nantes (1598)
Outcome of the War
French Wars finally came to an end
Religious problems persisted until the Edict of Nantes was issued in 1598
acknowledged Catholicism as official religion of France, but guaranteed Huguenots the right to worship in selected places in every district
also allowed them to retain some fortified towns for their protection
However, Huguenots were not allowed to enjoy political privileges
Turning Point- War of the Three Henries (1588-1589)
Henry (Duke of Guise) seized Paris and forced King Henry III to make him chief minister
Henry III assassinated Henry of Guise and joined Henry of Navarre (who turned back to Calvinism and was next in line for the throne), to crush the Catholic Holy League and retake Paris
Henry III assassinated in 1589
Henry of Navarre converted back to Catholicism, and his coronation was in 1594
Ninety-Five Theses issued by Martin Luther (1517)
Leipzig Debate (1519)
The Address to the Nobilty of the German Nation
Babylonian Captivity of the Church
On the Freedom of a Christian Man (1520)
Martin Luther excommunicated (1521)
Luther returns to Wittenburg (1522)
Impact of the Reformation on the future of Europe and the Rest of the World
Christianity is the most popular religion
The New World is founded on freedom of religion