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Interferon and Insulin Production

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Laura McCourt

on 23 January 2014

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Transcript of Interferon and Insulin Production

Production of GM insulin
Production of genetically modified (GM) interferon
What is interferon?
Success of genetically modified interferon
What is insulin?
Enzyme produced by the body.
Allows absorption of glucose by liver cells, skeletal cells and fat tissue cells.
Inability to produce insulin is known as
Diabetes type I
Diabetes type I
is treated by injecting patients with insulin from:
Cows or pigs.
Dead bodies.
Genetically modified insulin.
Laura McCourtt
Interferon and Insulin Production
Success of genetically modified insulin
Antiviral and anti-tumour protein.
It interferes with viral proliferation.
Other functions are:
Working against bacterial infections and parasitic infections.
Inhibiting cell division.
Promote or inhibit cell differentiation.
It is part of the non-specific immune response.
Interferon can be produced by:
Mammalian cells.
Bacterial cells.
Yeast cells.
First introduced in 1957 to treat infections.
Research in the 70s proved it could also treat:
Multiple Sclerosis.
Chronic hepatitis B and C.
Kaposi sarcoma.
Certain types of leukaemia.
Due to serious side effects, interferon is only used in specialized cases.
Studies with melanoma patients
45% of patients with high risk melanoma treated with interferon were still alive after 5 years.
37% of patients with high risk melanoma not treated with interferon were still alive after 5 years.
During the treatment many patients acquired serious side effects causing treatment to be reduced or delayed.
Other trials showed interferon may extend the time before the melanoma returns but it does not help people live longer.
Studies with multiple sclerosis patients
Reduces development of brain lesions.
Reduces frequency of relapses

Prevent irreversible disability.
Studies with hepatitis C patients
Interferon is used with ribavirin to treat hepatitis C.
Studies show that 95% of patients with hepatitis C treated with interferon were successfully cured.

In 1997, Eli Lilly, a pharmaceutical company which manufactures insulin, informed that only 300,000 insulin users were on animal insulin.
By 2006, the last year Eli Lilly produced animal insulin, the demand was reduced to 1%.
Doctors changed their patients insulin to GM insulin.
Objections to GM insulin
Some patients may suffer side effects.
Some patients may believe it is not natural to transfer genetic material from one organism into another.

Thanks for listening
Human Body Structure and Function Outcome 3 notes.
Full transcript