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Copy of Alternative Economies
Transcript of Copy of Alternative Economies
Early Western economic thought
Ancient and Scholastic
Mercantilists and Nationalism
Philipp von Hörnigk wrote the nine principal rules for a national economy:
Jean Baptiste Colbert
David Hume Classical Smith believed there were precisely three legitimate functions of government. The first function was..."...erecting and maintaining certain public works and certain public institutions, which it can never be for the interest of any individual or small number of individuals, to erect and maintain... Every system which endeavours... to draw towards a particular species of industry a greater share of the capital of the society than what would naturally go to it... retards, instead of accelerating, the progress of the society toward real wealth and greatness."
The classical economists were referred to as a group for the first time by Karl Marx. Unified in part by the labour theory of value, contrasting to value deriving from a general equilibrium of supply and demand.
John Stuart Mill was heavily influenced by Ricardo
Capitalism and Marx: Communist Manifesto combines political and dialectical theory.
Karl Marx Neoclassical Marginal utility
The Austrian School Keynesian John Maynard Keynes
The General Theory
Keynesian economics Heterodox Economics
and revisited economic schools of thought
considered outside of today's mainstream Institutionalism
John Kenneth Galbraith
Monetarism and the Chicago school
HERE AND NOW LAND: The Commons The Tragedy of the Commons The tragedy of the commons is a dilemma arising from the situation in which multiple individuals, acting independently and rationally consulting their own self-interest, will ultimately deplete a shared limited resource even when it is clear that it is not in anyone's long-term interest for this to happen. Collaborative Commons Collaborative commons online:
Lewis Hyde’s Common as Air,
and The Gift
Sharing networksCarbon Trading
Sky: Public Smog John Locke: The labor theory of ownership is a natural law theory that holds that property originally comes about by the exertion of labor upon natural resources.
In his Second Treatise on Government, he asked by what right an individual can claim to own one part of the world? He concluded that persons own themselves and therefore their own labor. When a person works, that labor enters into the object. Thus, the object becomes the property of that person. Business is not simply about making money. Nor is it merely a system of making and selling things. The promise of business is to increase the well-being of humankind through service, creative invention, and ethical action.
Even fifty years ago it didn’t seem urgent to understand the relationship between business and a healthy environment because natural resources seemed unlimited.
Now, we have cut 97% of the ancient forests in North America; the Ogallala Aquifer, an underwater river beneath the Great Plains larger than any body of fresh water on earth, will dry up within twenty to thirty ears at present rates of extraction! Critical losses are occurring while the world population is increasing at the rate of 70 million people per year. Ecology: Ownership Keeping Up With The Joneses Hyper Consumption and the endless chase of the new; novelty seeking GM’s Charles Kettering – “the key to economic prosperity is organized creation of dissatisfaction” In the U.S.A. there is approximately 16 Sq. ft of shopping mall for every person or, how about this one? and of course... The Big Box Store:
Short Term: Allows the individual buy cheaper products
Long Term: Strains the community who now has to support many workers health insurance and welfare benefits.
The corporate model demands the greatest profits for the company and its shareholders. Thinking in many scales:
The Global, the Local, and in Between and...From the Macro to the Micro How do we move away from the ideal of the superstar, or hyper-individual? From Individual To Our Neighbors To Our Food Local Food:
Growing Food in a City:
Global Food Chains:
Fair trade initiatives,
Corporate codes of conduct Local Currencies Community Development Credit Unions,
Rotating Savings and Credit Associations,
Cooperative Loan Funds,
Democratic Employee Stock Ownership Plans,
Worker Cooperatives and Collectives,
Community loan websites such as:
Zopa, Prosper, and Lending Club
Crowd funding - websites such as Kickstarter
Open source economy: www.metacurrency.org Ithica Hours: the Ithaca HOUR is Ithaca's $10.00 bill, because ten dollars per hour is the average of wages/salaries in Tompkins County. These HOUR notes, in five denominations, buy plumbing, carpentry, electrical work, roofing, nursing, chiropractic, child care, car and bike repair, food, eyeglasses, firewood, gifts, and thousands of other goods and services.
Our credit union accepts them for mortgage and loan fees. People pay rent with HOURS. The best restaurants in town take them, as do movie theaters, bowling alleys, two large locally-owned grocery stores, our local hospital, many garage sales, 55 farmer's market vendors, the Chamber of Commerce, and 300 other businesses.
Hundreds more have earned and spent HOURS who are not in the HOUR Town directory. Everyone who agrees to accept HOURS is paid two HOURS ($20.00) for being listed in the HOUR Town directory. Every year they may apply to be paid two additional HOURS, as reward for continuing participation. This is how we gradually and carefully increase the per capita supply of our money. Once issued, anyone may earn and spend HOURS, whether signed up or not, and hundreds have done so. Collaborative use is based on the concept that some persons would rather just have access to product as opposed to owning it outright.
For decades, many public and private entities have utilized some variant of public product sharing: libraries, private reuse centers (Goodwill Industries, Salvation Army), public and private housing collectives, trade and exchange stores, bike-share schemes, and salvage centers. Some maintain a physical space (a reuse center), while others act as a matching service (an exchange). How about the flexibility of using rather than owning? Resource Sharing/Bartering Examples:
One model from Portland, Oregon: Tool library:
Swap/ExchangeLandshareBrooklyn SkillshareParking Spots: Park at my houseBook swappingCarpool/Ride sharingBike Sharing: Bixi Bike, MontrealEtsyCar sharingFractional ownershipPeer-to-peer lendingPeer-to-peer rentingProduct service systemShare taxiKickstarterMeetupWordpressNetworked CollaborationTime banksLETSVirtual currencyAir B&BRoomarama toysway swapsimple swapmeet neighborgoods sharesomesugar, swapstyle, swapdvd How about Social Capital? Sourced liberally from:
Brett Broom and Ava Bronberg
John Cavanagh and Jerry Mander
(and others cited within)
Snap Goods - http://snapgoods.com/
Park at My House - http://www.parkatmyhouse.com/ca/
Guelph Car Co-Op - http://guelphcarcoop.ca/
Swap For Good - http://swapforgood.org/
Studio Share (photo and video equipment) - http://photo.StudioShare.org/
One Block Off the Grid (energy share) - http://about.1bog.org/
Kid Clothing Swap - http://www.thredup.com/
Borrow or Rent From Neighbors - http://neighborgoods.net/
Online Library of your Things for Share - http://www.thingloop.com/
Rental Site (USA-Wide) - http://www.borrowpro.com/
Share by Zipcode - http://www.sharesomesugar.com/learn/howitworks
Gifting Before Throwing Away - http://giftflow.org/
First Tool Lending Library in the USA - http://www.berkeleypubliclibrary.org/about_the_library/neighborhood_branches/tool_lending_library/
Oalkand's Lending Library for Tools - http://www.oaklandlibrary.org/Branches/tll_toolsched.html
Uneighbor - http://u.neighborrow.com/pages/about
Keeping Track - https://www.billmonk.com/about/tour
Lend and Borrow - http://www.ecomodo.com/pages/index.aspx
Manhattan Tool Library - http://seaporttools.org/tools.aspx?tag=ALL&sort=newest&find=&skip=0&count=20
Seattle's Tool Library - http://www.sustainablewestseattle.org/tool-library/
Chicago Bike Co-op - http://workingbikes.org/
Center for Study on the Gift Economy - http://www.gift-economy.com/
Materials for the Arts - http://www.mfta.org Art and Community:
Berkeley - http://www.berkeleypubliclibrary.org/about_the_library/neighborhood_branches/tool_lending_library/rules.php
Seattle - http://localtools.org/library/WSTL
Globe, Arizona - http://www.globeaz.gov/residents/tool-lending-library
Portland, Oregon - http://www.septl.org/join.php
Collaborative lifestyles through the Internet:
Share time, space, skills, and objects Alternative
Data Dump a brief recap Aristotle’s ideas about the “art” of wealth acquisition and his argument against Plato’s common ownership society, Aristotle writes, “Property should be in a certain sense common, but, as a general rule, private.” Mercantilism advocated for the use of the state’s military power to ensure local markets and supply sources were protected. Maintaining a positive balance of trade meant a surplus of exports. The importance of land, soil, and leaving nothing ungrown; never trade gold or silver internationally; inhabitants should make every effort to get along with their own domestic products; things should be bought in incomplete form and finished in the nation, and sold internationally if there is surplus… Nationalism, self-sufficiency and national power were the basic policies proposed. The labour of a person's body and the work of his hands we may say are properly his. Whatsoever, then, he removes out of the state that nature hath provided and left it in, he hath mixed his labour with, and joined to it something that is his own, and thereby makes it his property. Known for advocating for deregulation of Locke’s proposed trade practices, arguing that trade increased benefits for both sides. The Circular Flow states that trade was meant to flow freely. Francois Quesnay (1694-1774) believed that trade and industry were not sources of wealth, but flowed through the economy. Rent, wages and purchases were the real economic movers. Jacques Turgot (1727-1781) viewed society in terms of three classes: the productive agricultural class, the salaried artisan class, and the landowning class. He argued that land was the only product to be taxed. British Enlightenment The circular flow: These economists had seen the first economic and social transformation brought by the Industrial Revolution: rural depopulation, precariousness, poverty, apparition of a working class. They wondered about the population growth, because the demographic transition had begun in Great Britain at that time. As an economist, Bentham developed the concept of Utilitarianism. Social good is relational to the amount of people and the degree of happiness. Economics is about the relationship between three factors of production: land, labour, and capital. Robert Owen was an industrialist in Scotland who forbade children under ten to work, set the workday from 6am-7pm and provided evening shools for children when they finished. Such measures were substantial improvements. He published his vision in The New View of Society (1816) during the passage of the factory Acts and from there began to work on a utopian community in New Harmony Indiana. Learning from Owen, Marx was a believer in Hegel and Pierre Proudhon. In Proudhon’s book What is Property? He argued that property is theft, but later in his life In the posthumously published Theory of Property, he argued that "property is the only power that can act as a counterweight to the State Das Kapital: Concept of commodities. Before capitalist societies, modes of production were based on slavery. However, people themselves are still a disposable commodity. Commodity = labor + object. Commodities have both use and exchange value. Use value of a thing derives from the amount of labour used to produce it. This definition refined was “socially necessary labor time” Exchange values are subjectively inflated and deflated because there is a commodity fetish for certain items. People are alienated from the fruits of production and the means to realize their potential, psychologically, by their oppressed position in the labor market. But the tale told alongside exploitation and alienation is on of capital accumulation and economic growth. Thorsten Veblen (1857-1929) wrote his first and most influential book while he was at the University of Chicago, on The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899). In it he criticised materialistic culture and wealthy people who conspicuously consumed their riches as a way of demonstrating success. Conspicuous leisure was another focus of Veblen's critique. In The Theory of Business Enterprise (1904) Veblen distinguished production for people to use things and production for pure profit, arguing that the former is often hindered because businesses pursue the latter. Output and technological advance is restricted by the creation of monopoly. Businesses protect their existing capital investments, excessive credit, leading to depressions and increasing military expenditure and war through business control of political power. These two books, both focusing on criticism first of consumerism, second of profiteering held back on advocating something different. (Theory of leisure class - Veblen) Gessellian
Post-Keynesian (Journal of Post Keynesian Economics )
Soviet Planning Economists
American Institutionalist School
Supply-side economics The "American Way" "The Tragedy of the Commons," written by Garrett Hardin and first published in the journal Science in 1968 Locke's Homestead Principle versus On Land:
Community land trusts
Collective ownership of land
Camphill Movements CONTESTED:
1. Community Lending Libraries Save Money
2. Community Lending Libraries Cut Down On Consumption
3. Community Lending Libraries Increase Our Sense Of “Community”
1. Join An Existing Online Group (MAYBE Neighborrow.com,)
2. Start Your Own Online Group (USE WITH BillMonk.com)
One of the biggest benefits to setting up a communal lending library is that they save everyone money.
For example, if you’re installing tile and need a tile cutter and saw, you could spend $30 or more at Home Depot to buy these tools (which you’ll probably only use the one time). Renting them is probably not an option.
If, however, you had a community lending library set up, you could get both of these items for free. The great thing about lending libraries is that you can lend anything.
Children’s toys and games
Infant supplies (cribs, bottles, ect.)
Seasonal supplies (beach chairs, snow skis)
Computer supplies and accessories
Fine china for special occasions
One more thing: you can also lend your knowledge.For instance, do you know how to make homemade jam? Crochet? Fix a computer? Restring a guitar? Change an oil filter? What about a Community Lending Library Setting Up A Community Lending Library 3. Start A Local Neighborhood Lending Library Popular Critical mass is vital to collaborative use networks Lending Libraries: What Can We Lend? http://borrowtools.org/borrowers-rules-new.pdf Agrarian Gift Economy Consumers act rationally by seeking to maximise satisfaction of all their preferences. People allocate their spending so that the last unit of a commodity bought creates no more than a last unit bought of something else. After WWII, a more orthodox body of thought took root, reacting against the lucid debating style of Keynes, and re-mathematizing the profession. The orthodox centre was also challenged by a more radical group of scholars based at the University of Chicago. They advocated "liberty" and "freedom", looking back to 19th century-style non-interventionist governments. After the war, John Kenneth Galbraith (1908–2006) became one of the standard bearers for pro-active government and liberal-democrat politics. In The Affluent Society (1958), Galbraith argued voters reaching a certain material wealth begin to vote against the common good. He argued that the "conventional wisdom" of the conservative consensus was not enough to solve the problems of social inequality. In an age of big business, he argued, it is unrealistic to think of markets of the classical kind. This more conservative strand of thought reasserted a "libertarian" view of market activity, that people are best left to themselves, free to choose how to conduct their own affairs. Friedman argues laissez-faire government policy is more desirable than government intervention in the economy. Governments should aim for a neutral monetary policy oriented toward long-run economic growth, by gradual expansion of the money supply. He advocates the quantity theory of money, that general prices are determined by money. Therefore active monetary (e.g. easy credit) or fiscal (e.g. tax and spend) policy can have unintended negative effects. Amartya Sen
Joseph E. Stiglitz
Macroeconomics since the Bretton Woods era Global times 1.The economy undergoes a transition from the production of goods to the provision of services.
2. Knowledge becomes a valued form of capital (e.g., the knowledge produced through the Human Genome Project).
3. Producing ideas is the main way to grow the economy.
Through processes of globalization and automation, the value and importance to the economy of blue-collar, unionized work, including manual labor (e.g., assembly-line work) decline, and those of professional workers (e.g. scientists, creative-industry professionals, and IT professionals) grow in value and prevalence.
4. Behavioral and information sciences and technologies are developed and implemented. (e.g. behavioral economics, information architecture, cybernetics, Game theory and Information theory.) In recent years, other forms of product sharing have appeared, including Peer-to-peer rental and neighborhood product service systems: rather than consumers renting services from businesses, platforms are emerging to facilitate shared usage with each other, including Reallocation/Redistribution markets Participatory Economics Adam Smith -The Wealth of Nations, 1776: "It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own self interest. We address ourselves, not to their humanity but to their self-love, and never talk to them of our own necessities but of their advantages." -Adam Smith's famous statement on self interest Post Industrailism Local Currency: Community Way Local Currency: Ithica Hours Local Currency: Ithica Hours Chris Anderson on Gifting The Really Really Free Market Barterquest on My 9 News Barter Point system: barterquest ResourceTool Library Philly Tool Library Washington Tool Library Teddy Cruz on Urban Renewal Kibbutz Lotan Garrett Hardin on The Tragedy of the Commons The Commons Keynes Today Author Ivan Illich has pointed out that the average American is involved with his or her automobile – working in order to pay for it, drive it, and maintain it – for sixteen hundred hours a year. This means that when all car mileage in a given year is divided by the time spent supporting the car, the average car oner is traveling at an average speed of five miles per hour. Paul Hawken poses “the Restorative Economy” a prosperous commercial culture that is so intelligently designed and constructed that it mirrors nature at every step, a symbiosis of company and customer and ecology. Big Box Or Not You’ll first need to meet with others on your street, or in your neighborhood or community to decide what kind of library to start. You could even make it a little bit of everything if you want.
Next, anyone that wants to be a part of the library needs to list exactly what they want to make available for lending. Once you have everyone’s inventory list, you’ll need to create a type of “lending phone book”.You’re going to list each person’s inventory, along with their name, phone number, and email address, and compile everything into a booklet. You can make a harder cover out of card stock, and give one copy to everyone in the library.
If you decide to go this route then it’s a good idea to decide on a code of ethics for people to follow. For instance, tools should come back clean and unbroken. Clothing needs to be washed and wrinkle-free. If there are damages, the borrow must pay to replace the loaned item.
One more thing: you can also lend your knowledge.
For instance, do you know how to make homemade jam? Crochet? Fix a computer? Restring a guitar? Change an oil filter?
Many of us have no idea what our neighbors know. But we all have specialized knowledge about something that we can share with someone else. If you know how to do something, then list it just like you would a tool or piece of clothing!
I promise: sharing your knowledge with someone else and teaching them to do something new will give you more gratification than lending anything else you have to give.
Once everyone has an inventory list, it’s up to them to contact the lender directly and borrow the item.(http://www.thegreenestdollar.com/2008/11/how-to-set-up-a-community-lending-library/) Thingloop Giftflow MFTA Zipcar Economic Models Commons Ownership Ecology New Networks Resource Sharing Collaborations Majora Carter There is a realization that We are the key to our own recovery -Majora Carter My other inspirations: Jobs that better our surroundings Majora Carter on... What about time banks, skill shares, or
material shares? Caroline Wollard will speak with us about:
NYC Learning Exchange - http://tradeschool.ourgoods.org/
A Barter Network for the Creative Community - http://ourgoods.org/