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A Journey Through Music Education in America

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Michele Yang

on 9 October 2013

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Transcript of A Journey Through Music Education in America

A Journey Through Music Education in America
Music: A Curricular Subject
Groups, Meetings, Publications, and Research
Beginning in the late 19th century, many pro-active organizations and associations were formed for education. Many were formed to protect education, and many were formed on the basis of protecting specifically music education. These groups did more than just meet at conferences; in fact, some met so many times a year they refused to be called a conference anymore. Papers were being published on music education; journals and magazines had articles on pedagogy; there was even a group formed designated to gathering research on music education and publishing it for teachers everywhere.
The Broadening Music Curriculum
Ancient Greece to the New World

Ancient Rome
Music Education was much more accessible in Rome. It was taught in public schools by musicians who were usually artisans from the plebeian class.
The Seven Liberal Arts of Ancient Rome:
Trivium - Grammar, Logic, and Rhetoric
Quadrivium - Arithmetic, Geometry, Astronomy, and Music
De Institutione Musica
Believed music was a mathematical science
Musica Mundana - music of the spheres
Musica Humana - harmony of the human body and spiritual harmony
Musica Instrumentalis - instrumental music
Europe in the 17th Century
Because of the huge growth of the middle class, education became even more of a necessity.
Three Types of Schools:
Monastery: lessons in reading, writing, and psalm singing.
Cathedral: began as a school to teach music and prepare musicians for the Church
Parish: began as a school to teach music and prepare musicians for the Church
By the end of the 8th century, the three schools began teaching the Seven Liberal Arts. (Just like in Ancient Rome!)
Music education consisted of singing by rote, Once notation was developed, music reading became the main focus of music education.
The Middle Ages
St. Odo of Cluny (878-942)
a choir singer who became head of the abbey of Cluny.
Author of "Enchiridion musices," in which he presented a systematic use of letters to represent musical pitchers, from A to G.
He was the first to use letters this way, and his system became standard during the Middle Ages.
Guido d'Arezzo (990-1050)
The most important teacher of his time
Choirmaster who invented a system of teaching students to read musical notation
Used a four-line staff that evolved into the five-line staff we now use universally.
Guidonian Hand was the "birth" of sight singing

leader in the new education of his time
Author of "The Great Didactic," in which he discussed the curriculum and method of music and art.
John Amos Comenius of Bohemia:
Music in German Schools
Music was taught by Rote and sang by ear.
Students learned music theory, part singing, and composition.
Some schools offered instrumental study
Germany became a model for nineteenth century American Schools.
Two Sources of American Music Education:
Pilgrims - 1620, Massachusetts
Puritans - 1630, Massachusetts

The Roots of Music Education in America
Music in the North

Music in the South
Mostly Psalmody
No professional musicians
Music is for Everyone (Universal Education!)
Mostly Secular
Mostly professional musicians
Music only for the wealthy (Private Education)
Music Education in the New World
Spain conquers Mexico in 1521, and the Spanish convert the Aztecs to Christianity through Music.
Pedro de Gante
In 1523, travels from Mexico to help convert the Indians to Christianity.
Teaches Indians to read, write, sing European music, play instruments, and build violin and organs.
Established a university in 1536.
Juan de Padilla
Brought to New Mexico in 1540 to help convert the Indians through Music.
By 1630, Spanish friars served in 25 missions, teaching 50,000 Indians to a school similar to Pedro de Gante's!
"The native Indians were so accomplished in music that it became the main tool of the Franciscans, Dominicans, Augustinians, and Jesuits as they too converted the Indians. Music was the principal subject in their schools."
(Britton 1958)
Both Groups...
Sought religious freedom
Had to survive in the New World, which involved:
Finding food
creating shelter
learning to farm new lands,
Because of the need to survive...
music took a back seat :(
Music splits into two categories...
The Regular Way
The New Way
singing by note, reading music
became the way of learning music over rote
Ways to standardize music to be preformed the same by all, which increased the quality of music once it was taught.
"lining out," a sort of call and response that became a tradition in the New World, where most people were musically illiterate
No reading of music by congregation, which lead to inconsistencies in music from church to church.
Reverend John Tufts
Advocated The Regular Way, which lead to music instruction in Singing Schools. Singing Schools taught people to sing by note, and satisfied both religious and worldly purposes. Tune books were used in singing schools, which contained music and rudiments of music - from the basics to advanced theory.
The first teaching methods and teachers came from singing schools
Singing schools helped to show the benefits of music for the public
Tune books were adapted the the Pestelozzian Principles, which meant education was child-centered and based on individual differences.
Education was a constant struggle in the nineteenth century, and music was no exception. However, music education began to flourish in the later half of the century. Different teaching methods were being shared at conferences, music in the curriculum spread throughout the country, and in many cities a teacher specifically for music was introduced to the public schools.
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827)
Hans Georg Nägeli (c. 1812)
Elam Ives Jr. (1802-1864)
Lowell Mason (1792-1872)
The self proclaimed "Father of singing among the children" in the United States.The central figure in the process of having music adopted as a school subject.
Born in Medfield, Massachusetts to a prosperous and somewhat musical family.Attended the singing school of Amos Albee and studied with Dedham musician Oliver Shaw.Played the organ, piano, flute, clarinet, and other instruments.
After moving to Georgia in 1812, began offering singing schools. He became the choirmaster and organist at the Presbyterian Church in 1815, where he was able to compose anthems and hymns. While in Georgia, studied harmony, counter point, and figured bass with Frederick Abet of Germany. He organized, produced, directed, sold tickets, and advertised "Grand Oratorios" that featured works of Western Composers.
In 1821, published a collection of sacred music comprised of his own compositions and works of Western Composers through the Handel and Haydn Society of Boston.
Returned to Boston in 1827. Took the position of choirmaster at Dr. Lyman Beecher's church, lectured on church music, and became president of the Handel and Haydn Society. Resigned from presidency in 1832 to focus on teaching children. Began publishing children's music: "The Juvenile Psalmist: The Child's Introduction to sacred music," (1829) and "The Juvenile Lyre." (1831)
Music Conventions
Peztalozzian Principles and the Boston Academy of Music
The Magna Charta of Music Education
After Lowell Mason agreed to teach music for one year in South Boston with no salary, he held a concert on August 14, 1838 to show the growth of his students in the years' time. Following the concert, many people were convinced music should be included in the school curriculum. On August 28, 1838, just two weeks after Mason's concert, the Boston School Committee approved a motion to employ a teacher of vocal music in the public schools of Boston.
This was the first time in the United States that music was approved as a subject of the public school curriculum - equal to other subjects and supported by school funds. This motion was so monumental it was called The Magna Charta of Music Education.
Lowell Mason was appointed Superintendent of Music, the first music supervisor in the United States. By 1844, he was teaching music in six schools and supervising ten teachers in ten more schools. Although he was attacked publicly by H.W. Day in newspapers, convincing the school committee to replace him in 1845. He was rehired six months later.
School Music Spreads to Other Communities
Cincinnati and Boston
George Loomis, 1866
William Channing Woodbridge
(c. 1830)
American Association of School Administrators
Code of Ethics
National Education
1879: Founded as a combination of the American Association for the Advancement of Education, The National Teachers Association, The National Association of School Superintendents, and the American Normal School Association.
Teachers from the North and South taught newly freed slaves of all ages after the Civil War, many of whom went on to advocate for public education.
1866: Membership was opened to Women to join as well as Men
1867: Successfully lobbied congress to establish a Department of Education.
1869: Emily Rice elected the Vice President of the organization, becoming the first woman to hold office
The NEA fought for child labor laws decades before the issue was resolved
1963: published "Music and Art in the Schools." The time allotted for for music instruction in schools increased over the years, and programs that were reduced and cut before WWII were reinstated.
Over the years, the NEA absorbed many other groups, and represented educators from every level and discipline.
A Six million dollar headquarters was built in Washington D.C., funded only with member contributions.
Music Educators National Conference
1906: Philip Hayden held a meeting for music supervisors in Keokuk, Iowa. 104 supervisors from 14 states attended. The conference included classes, lectures, musical performances, and discussions. This conference became the Music Supervisors National Conference.
1910: First official MSNC conference was held in Cincinnati. "Music for Every Man" and "Music for the people, music by the people, and music of the people."
1934:, the conference was relabeled the Music Educators National Conference. Members now included music teachers, not music supervisors.
1940: MENC adopted a new constitution and became a department of the NEA
1950: MENC redefined their purpose as "The Advancement of Music Education"
2012: MENC changed its name to NAfME. Their purpose was again redefined: "To advance music education by encouraging the study of music making by all.
Goals and Objectives Project
1969: The Project, directed by Paul Lehman, began to implement the recommendations of the Tanglewood Symposium, established by MENC.
The Purpose of the GO Project was to identify the responsibilities of MENC as they pertained to future needs.
1970: MENC Executive Board decides four major goals and thirty-five specific objectives for the professional in general.
The goals of MENCE were to conduct programs and activities to build: 1. A vital music culture, and 2. An enlightened musical public.
The Goals of the profession:
Carry out comprehensive music programs in all schools
Involve persons of all ages in learning music
Support the quality preparation of teachers
Use the most effective techniques and resources in music instruction
Research in Music Education
1953: Britton published the first issue of "The Journal of Research in Music Education." It created the opportunity for a community of music education scholars to develop.
1992: "Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning" was edited by Richard Colwell and Carol Richardson. The handbook contained fifty-five chapters written by more than seventy scholars and researchers.
1963: The Council for Research in Music Education was founded by the University of Illinois and the Illinois Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. The CRME Bulletin publishes book reviews, research findings, doctoral dissertations, dissertation reviews, and conference announcements. The bulletin exists to bridge the gap between researches and practitioners in the field.
1978: Special Research Interest Groups were formed at the MENC convention. The SRIG served music educators who share similar research interests. Some groups focused on creativity, learning, and development, measurement and evaluation, affective response, history, philosophy, instructional strategies, perception, and early childhood.
1978-1982: Ann Arbor Symposium was held and cosponsored by MENC and the University of Michigan. The Symposium brought music educators, psychologists, and learning theorists together.
1984: Wesleyan Symposium is held, sponsored by MENCWesleyan Unversity, and the Theodore Presser Foundation. It's purpose was to examine the relationship between social anthropology and music education. It was the first major symposium dedicated to historical research in music education.
1967: Conference is held at the Tanglewood Music Center in Western Massachusetts. The Symposium was created to allow MENC to respond to the findings of the Yale Seminar and the position papers published in the MEJ. The Seminar was sponsored by MENC, Boston University, and the Theodore Presser Foundation.
Attendees included sociologists, scientists, labor leaders, educators, musicians, and representatives of corporations.
Allen Britton, Arnold Broido, and Charles Gary wrote the declaration that summarized the symposium, which ends "WE NOW CALL FOR MUSIC TO BE PLACED IN THE CORE OF THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM."
At the end of the symposium, the attendees agreed on eight final declarations about music education at every level.
Tanglewood Symposium
Music Appreciation
Right before the turn of the twentieth century, music teachers began incorporating other historical and stylistic features of music.
The Radio and Phonograph
Frances Elliot Clark became an authority on the use of the phonograph to teach music to children
Camden, New Jersey, 1910: created the Education Department of the Victor Talking Machine Company, where she supervised music recordings for the classroom. Along with these recordings she created others to correlate music with English and American literature.
In the 1920s, she promoted the radio as another outlet for music appreciation.
Alice Keith of Cleveland and D.C. Boyle of Ohio became the pioneers in using the radio in teaching music.
Wisconsin, 1917: MSNC President Edgar B. Gordon used the radio for a statewide music program.
Many radio programs began being broadcast in the 1930s, not only for children, but for adults to enjoy as well
Instrumental Music
In the middle of the nineteenth century, the American public was dazzled by touring orchestras and bands. These touring ensembles became the models for school orchestras and bands
Theodore Thomas: a violinist from Germany who sought to build an American orchestra of European standards. His orchestra played in almost every community orchestra of any size, exposing countless Americans to a finely tuned orchestra.
High School bands and orchestras date back to as early as 1896.
Playing in a band or orchestra was believed to lead to character development and socialization
1922: Joseph Maddy's High School Orchestra perform at the MSNC meeting, leading to the creation of the Committee on Instrumental Affairs, which focused on instrumental music in schools

Teacher Education
1902: NEA Department of Music Education in Minneapolis meets. Thomas Tapper of Boston, A.J. Gantwoort of Cincinnati, and O.T. Corson of Columbus proposed three standards that have existed in teacher programs ever since
Before 1905, few colleges offered public school music courses. The Cincinnati Conservatory was the first to offer a summer course in school music.
Many new materials for teacher preparation were published in the second decade of the twentieth century, including:
"How to Teach Music in Public Schools: A Complete Outline; Graded, Un-Graded, High and Normal Schools" (1910)
"The Teacher's Manual Music: Newly Revised and Enlarged Edition" (1924)
1935: William D. Revelli joined the faculty of the University of Michigan and created a degree program in wind instruments for band directors who preferred not to enroll in the public school music program. This program led to the Bachelor of Music degree
Woodshole Conference
Took place in 1959 at Woodshole, Massachusetts
Purpose was to discuss the problems of science. education and recommend solutions. The conference was the beginning of a trend of the unified efforts of distinguished people from related fields addressing themselves to the general improvement of education.
This was the first time the federal government became deeply involved in education.
Music Education
Projects and Foundations
The National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities was created in 1965 as an independent federal agency in the executive branch.
The National Endowment for the Arts announced in 1893 that they would become more involved with arts education, bringing new art programs for children
The National Alliance for Arts Education was established by the Kennedy Center and the US Office of Education in 1973 to give young people access to the Kennedy Center as both performers and as audience members.
The Juilliard Repertory Project began in 1964 and brought together scholars and teachers to research and collect music of the highest quality for teaching music.
The Contemporary Music Project began in 1957. It was a major project to help the music education profession modernize itself to serve contemporary societal needs. It sponsored the Young Composers
Carl Orff
Zoltan Kodaly (1882-1967)
Emile-Jacques Dalcroze and Eurythmics (1865-1950)
Shinchi Suzuki and
the Suzuki Method (1898-1998)
Aesthetic Music Education
New Philosophy of education lead by Charles Leohnard of the University of Illinois and Allan Britton of the University of Michigan.
The philosophy relied on the students' depth of understanding of music itself. It emphasized that it was the music that made music education unique among school subjects.
"Philosophy in a New Key," "Feeling and Form," "Emotion and Meaning Music" were integral to understanding this philosophy because they established the connection between music and emotion.
Ancient Greece
Music was integral to Greek Culture.
Students were given a well rounded education, including training in singing and on instruments like the lyre and the aulos.
The Greeks believed that music created a successful citizen. However, choirs held a high place in Greek life, and eventually choir competitions were held between tribes.
Music for All ----> Music for Talented
Plato (428-348): Believed children must learn music to develop a perception of idealized society
Aristotle (384-322): Believed students should be taught music to develop their own tastes.
The most influential teacher of children in his time
Swiss educator whose theories of education were used throughout Europe and the United States
Changed the way people viewed elementary education - the relationship between children and adults. Children were no longer seen as tiny adults. His teaching approach replaced strict discipline with a method of love and understanding of the individual child.
Believed education was the only means to elevate social and economic status of lives - Dignity through Education!
Fundamentals of Peztalozzian Education
The purpose of education is to prepare people to achieve their highest potential in life.
Morality and citizenship: students' moral, physical, and mental faculties.
Although Pestalozzi did not teach music, the Pestalozzian Principles were applied to Music education by many European and American Music Educators, such as...
Colleague and disciple of Pestalozzi
Taught music in schools using the Pestalozzian Principles, modified for Music Education
Organized group singing classes in Swiss schools to promote social unity and a desire for good music
Incorporated Pestalozzian Principles in his 1812 music method, co-written with Michael Traugott Pfeiffer
formed the Zürich Singinstitut - a mixed choir and children's choir - which showcased how well a musical organization could serve the community.
Highly respected geographer and minister, deeply interested in developing the common schools and studying instructional methods.
One of the first Americans to suggest music as a regular part of the public school curriculum.
Delivered a speech entitled "On Vocal Music as a Branch of Common Education." For his presentation, he and Lowell Mason prepared a group of boys to sing three songs in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of music education.
On a trip to Europe, he observed Nägeli's teaching method of applying Pestalozzian Principles. He was so impressed with the results that he was convinced music should have a place in the American school curriculum, taught by Pestalozzi's approach.
After this trip to Europe, Woodbridge returned to America and Joined forces with another American music teacher who experimented with teaching music to children using Pestalozzian principles ...
Church choir director and singing school master from Connecticut.
Established and a Philadelphia Music Seminary in 1830, where he served as its principal.
First to apply Pestalozzian principles to teaching music in the United States.
Hartford Experiment: Run by Ives and Woodbridge, taught a volunteer class of seventy students - aged 6 to 12 - using European materials. The experiment proved successful, and the children were trained to sing in just months.
Follow the Hartford Experiment, Ives wrote two books on the Pestalozzian Principles: "American Elementary Singing Book," (1830) and "The Juvenile Lyre" (1831).
Although he is virtually forgotten in American music history, he had an enormous impact on music education.
Ives' book, "American Elementary Singing Book," may have been the first American music book to advocate Pestalozzian principles.
Founded the Boston Academy of Music in 1832 with George J. Webb - purpose was to apply Pestalozzian Principles to teaching music to children.
Woodbridge, Ives, and Mason all advocated applying Pestalozzian Principles to teaching music to children.
After publishing "The Juvenile Lyre," the preface of Pestalozzian Principles influenced music education in schools for almost a century: Music develops children's moral, physical, and intellectual capacities. It became a manifesto for music educators of the time.
One of the objects of the Boston Academy of Music was the introduction of vocal music into schools.
Five individuals who lead the school: George H. Snelling, T. Kemper Davis, Samuel A. Eliot, and Lowell Mason. Each was from a different field, but supported vocal and music instruction in schools. Because the school attracted many students, a fifth man was hired - George J. Webb.
The school offered different , resources, classes, and support for music: vocal music programs in private schools, public lectures on music, music classes for children and adults, improvement of church music, and creating support for music in common schools.
The Boston Academy of Music was a demonstration school that highlighted the effectiveness of music instruction.
Lowell Mason published his "Manual of Instruction of the Boston Academy of Music, for Instruction in the Elements of Vocal Music on the System of Pestalozzi in 1834. His book became the handbook of singing school teachers throughout the country.
New Hampshire Central Musical Society of Goffstown: singing school convention held in 1829 in which small town singing groups performed together large choral works and sing in contests. Church choir directors, singing school masters, and singers from all over the region attended. Lowell Mason established the Academy as the new center for this convention.
August, 1834: Mason and Webb held a convention for two days for twelve musicians from Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Hampshire. Along with discussions of problems, they were provided with lectures on teaching methods as well as classes in psalmody, harmony, and voice culture.
By 1836, the convention lasted for ten days. By the end of the convention, the attendees unanimously approved ten resolutions for Music Education.
In 1840, this meeting of musicians was renamed The National Music Convention. It drew more musicians than ever before. Mason took the convention around the country in the 1840s, going as far west as Cleveland.
"The Music Convention became our first national school of music pedagogy, harmony, conducting, and voice culture."
- Birge, 1928
Cincinnati and Boston have similar histories. Cincinnati was also a leader among other american cities in establishing school music programs. One year after the Boston Academy of Music was founded, Cincinnati formed the Eclectic Academy of Music. It was meant to advocate for vocal music to become a branch of education in America. Lowell Mason's brother Timothy Mason became a professor,
1834: William Nixon was the first to advocate for music education in Cincinnati.
1837: Calvin E. Stowe read important paper at the Institute's Seventh Annual Meeting. He had just returned from visiting schools in Europe. His address was entitled "Course of Instruction in the Schools of Prussia and Wurtemberg." After he presented this paper in Ohio, it became one of the most discussed education documents of its time.
1837: Charles Beecher presents a critically important paper, summed up with the conclusions that all men can learn to sing, vocal music is beneficial in many ways to schools, and that these schools must recognize the want and need for music education and the teachers must be qualified.
1838: Music was taught formally for the first time in Cincinnati schools. Timothy Mason taught music classes for no salary here, just as his brother had done in Boston.
1847: Galveston, Texas began a music program in schools.
1848: Charles Aiken becomes Cincinnati's most prominent figure in public school music. Aiken taught in Cincinnati for 31 years and was the first music specialist to teach in elementary grades. He was the city's first superintendent of music.
1851: Music was taught as a high school subject in San Francisco.
1853: San Antonio, Texas began a music program in schools.
1850s: Detroit, Chicago, Memphis, Saint Louis, Terra Haute, Cleveland, and Columbus all began music instruction in their schools.
"Many cities established programs after the civil war."
-Mark, p. 52
began teaching in Indianapolis, Indiana in 1866
Produced "First Steps in Music," a seris which introduced music reading by placing notes above or around a single line and did not use clefs, meter, key signatures, or accidentals.
Luther Whitting Mason
Began teaching in Cincinnati in 1856
1864: moved to Boston to teach younger grades. In the two years he taught, 50% more children could sing.
Stressed importance of teaching by rote while making the elements of music clear.
1870: Wrote "The National Music Course"
The National Music Course
Consisted of 7 books
Included sets of charts to provide a sequential approach to music reading
Much of the song materal was based on German folk music.
Utilizes rote singing and notation
Daily practice was the key
The Normal Music Course
A scientific approach to music instruction
Written by Hosea Holt and John Tufts, 1883
Consisted of 5 books that emphasized contrapuntal sight-singing
Became the standard for school music series by 1893
Used by Holt in a summer institute for teaching methodology.
"Nineteenth century educators used the word 'science' to mean modern. The key word in the early part of the twentieth century was 'progressive'..." (Mark, p. 69)
1865: Established at the NTA meeting in Pennsylvania. Many members of the AASA helped advance the cause of music education.
Randall Condon brought in Joseph Maddy's orchestra from Indiana to perform at a convention. The performence inspired superintendents and they took their new found enthusiasm home to their own schools
1927: Joined with Music Education Research Council and came up with a resolution to extend music education to all rural schools
1929: Passed a new resolution for a study reevaluating the arts and giving them more recognition
1947: AASA cooperated with MENC and the American Federation of Musicians to create a Code of Ethics.
Because many schools had developed excellent performing ensembles that were being used for commercial purposes without pay, the Code of Ethics was provided to protect student musicians
The Code stated that school groups could only perform in civic events, education broadcasts, benefits, charities, and other non-profit organizations.
The Code has been renewed many times since it was created and still protects students by defining the line between professional musicians and students.
Department of Music Education
1883: Department of Arts was created
Because music teachers were encouraged to attend NEA meetings, they vied to create a Department of Music Education
Music Education was not intended for making good musicians, but to create a musical culture.
MENC Publications
1900: "School Music Monthly"
1940: "The Music Educators Journal
MENC published bulletins addressing specific music education issues, which laid the foundation for the creation of the National Standards for Music Education
Frances Elliott Clark, Ottumwa, Iowa: spent ten minutes of each chorus rehearsal telling students about composers and other components of music
Will Earhart, Richmond, Indiana: had his orchestra members concentrate on sixteen composers
George Oscar Bowen, Northampton, Massachusetts: offered a music appreciation course for credit
Frances Elliot Clark heard a song she was teaching her elementary students played through a phonograph and realized it would be an excellent tool in her classroom.
The Woodshole Conference set a standard for all other branches of education to meet with others in their field and do the same thing.
The American Association of School Administrators believed the arts were a necessary part of American education, and that the emphasis on science education was a dangerous unbalance.
The National Education Association Project on Instruction believed that ways of creative and disciplined thinking from an education in humanities and the arts, literature and music, led to a more well rounded student.
" The need for individual emotional development and growth was to provide a balance to the new emphasis on science, mathematics, and engineering."
-Mark, p. 150
Swiss musician Dalcroze based his method Eurhythmics on the importance of movement in music: tone, rhythm, and movement to express musical interpretation.
Although he didn't intend the method to be meant for children, after working with Edouard Clarapede, the two recognized the immense potential the method had for teaching children music.
The Dalcroze method is offered in many colleges in America as the course Eurhythmics, and many of its techniques have been incorporated into other methods.
Suzuki's motto is "Every Child Can."
He calls it the "mother tongue method." He believed that learning music was like learning a native language as a child.
"The Suzuki method involves observation, imitation, and repetition
After American string teachers saw a film of 750 Japanese children playing Bach's Concerto for Two Violins, the Suzuki method was quickly adapted in America.
Orff based his approach off his interest in folk music, nineteenth century popular song, dance and theatre music, and medieval, baroque, and Renaissance music.
Improvisation and dance were major parts of the program. Orff was inspired by Dalcroze's movement and rhythm theories.
Eventually, he concluded that his rhythm education methods might be more effective with children. His approach was adopted in private and public schools all over the United States.
Hungarian composer concerned with the musical life of Hungary in the twentieth century. He was most troubled with the enrichment of life through music.
Kodaly believed it was the school's responsibility to stimulate musicality in individuals.
He developed a pedagogical system that included singing nationalistic and folk songs in the schools.
1974: The Organization of American Kodaly Educators was formed in the United states to promote his method.
Vision 2020 and the
Housewright Symposium
Directed in 1999 by the MENC President Jun Hinckley and held at Florida State University. It's purpose was to:
Review the status of music education
Lay the groundwork for the profession in the future
Articulate an ideal vision of music education for the next two decades.
Vision 2020 was inspired by the Tanglewood Symposium that took place 32 years earlier. It grew out of societal changes such as the school reform movement, the civil rights movement, and technological advances.
Shift from musical perception, cognition, specialized interests to theories like Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory
Music education advocacy became a priority. The National Standards were created.
The Housewright Symposium was named after Wiley Housewright, the president of MENC at the time. He was a representative at the Tanglewood Symposium and the dean of the School of Music at Florida State University.
Acknowledged current issues regarding music education, reviewed the Tanglewood recommendations, and ultimately resulted in the Housewright Declaration - a written outline of the agreements that were made.
More focus on music for all. Making music is vital.
The National Anthem Project
Sponsored by MENC in 2004. Created because a Harris poll found that only 1/3 of Americans knew the words to the Anthem and only some knew the history of it.
MENC began traveling around the United States to teach the history and words of the National Anthem
Sponsors included: Jeep, the History Channel, Gibson musical instruments, and the Bank of America.
Laura Bush was the Honorary Chairperson
It showed the necessity of music education in our schools and the support necessary for music programs to keep music education in our schools.
No Child Left Behind Act
Signed in January, 2002. Also known as the Elementary Secondary Education Act
It was intended to level the field for all children, especially the underprivileged who were served by Title 1.
NCLB required states to create and implement accountability and determine success by testing students in curricular areas identified as core subjects.
Testing was a key component, only required in reading, mathematics, and science, which made if difficult for teachers whose subjects were not tested.
Each state developed its own standard. It included high stakes testing in math, science, and reading which many felt were detrimental to students because they were not being tested individually, only as a school.
Because more attention was given to testing reading and mathematics, teachers of other subjects were asked to incorporate them into their subjects - similar to some of the Music Education National Standards and the Common Core Crosswalk.
MENC Centennial
The Celebration of 100 years passing since the founding of MENC, 1997-2007
It culminated the writing of the Centennial Declaration.
Acknowledged that serious problems still persist, but that their ideals are still reaffirmed in the challenging context of education.
It was divided into three categories of Needs:
Needs Regarding Curriculum: More flexible and variable programs, deeper insight into the role of music in general education, and focusing on how music relates to other subjects.
Needs Regarding Assessment: Development of multiple assessment strategies that draw upon a range of methodologies and techniques.
Needs Regarding Advocacy: Need to transform a uniform message to decision makers and to the public.
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