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Sexual and Gender Identities

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Sharlene Kanesalingam

on 26 March 2013

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Transcript of Sexual and Gender Identities

By: Sharlene Kanesalingam & Melissa Di Giambattista Sexual identity in schools What is a Sexual Identity?

Types of Sexual Behaviour

The Surfacing of Sexual Identities

A Brief Canadian History

The Role of Schools

Education’s Responsibilities

Sexual Identity and Society

Stigma

Religion

Resources

References OUTLINE A sexual identity refers to a lasting pattern of emotional, romantic, and sexual attractions to a male, female, or a person of both sexes.

It also refers to a person’s sense of identity based on those attractions, related behaviors, and membership in a community of others who share those attractions. What is a sexual identity? A heterosexual sexual identity refers to having attractions to members of the opposite sex. Types of Sexual Behaviour A Brief Canadian History The Role of Schools Peers influences on sexual identity SAFE SCHOOLS ACT Education's responsibilities 1995 1971 Canada sees its first gay-positive organization:
ASK (the Association for Social Knowledge Bill C-150 is passed, decriminalizing
homosexuality in Canada 1964 1969 George Klippert, the last man jailed for homosexuality in Canada, was released from prison. Homosexuality had been removed as a mental illness, diagnosable through the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 1973 The Coalition for Lesbian and Gay Rights in Ontario was established and fought to include sexuality under the protective clauses of the Ontario Human Rights Code 1975 1992 End to ban on gay people in the military in Canada.
On May 17th, homosexuality was removed from the World Health Organization's International Classification of Disease. Canada grants refugee status to homosexuals fearing for their well-being in their native country 1994 The federal government amended the Canadian Human Rights Act to include sexual orientation. The Supreme Court of Canada ruled discrimination against gays violated Canada’s Constitution, specifically its Charter of Rights and Freedoms 1998 2005 The Canadian Senate passed Bill C-38 in that same-sex couples’ could legally marry. Sources http://capping.slis.ualberta.ca/cap09/MoyraLang/A%20Brief%20and%20Recent%20and%20Canadian%20Homosexual%20History.html

http://travel.nytimes.com/2005/06/29/international/americas/29canada.html?_r=0

http://www.clga.ca/aboutus/LGArchivist/v7.htm

http://www.allvoices.com/contributed-news/7041675-gays-in-the-canadian-military "A Positive Space program brings visibility and support to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans individuals. A Positive Space sticker on an office door, workspace, or living space identifies the occupant as accepting and being supportive of these communities. Participants in the program answer questions, provide assistance, suggest resources, and refer individuals to appropriate offices and services. Positive Space campaigns have been established at other universities (University of Toronto, University of Calgary, and York University). Three groups sponsor the Queen’s Positive Space Program: OPIRG Kingston, the Human Rights Office, and the Education on Queer Issues Project (EQUIP)." POSITIVE SPACE PROGRAM " A safe school enables learning and teaching within an environment that
fosters responsibility, respect and academic excellence." WHAT IS THE SAFE SCHOOLS ACT? Sexual Identity & Society STIGMA. Christianity:
"I know what scripture says about homosexuals, but when I stop to think about it, I can't get past the fact that the Bible is just a book, and Tony and Craig are real people," Pope Benedict XVI added. "Love is love. Man-woman, man-man, woman-woman—who cares? The Catholic Church recognizes it's not the Stone Age anymore." RELIGION Islam: Some self-described liberal Muslims accept and consider Homosexuality as natural, regarding these verses as either obsolete in the context of modern society, or point out that the Qu'ran speaks out against homosexual lust, and is silent on homosexual love.  Judaism:The known history of homosexuality in Judaism begins in Leviticus, which describes intercourse between male homosexuals as a capital offense. The historically prevalent view among Jews was to regard homosexual intercourse as sinful, arguing that it was forbidden by the Torah. Sikhism: Many Sikhs believe that homosexual thoughts and behaviour are just manifestations of lust, and that it is therefore forbidden. Most Sikhs assume this means homosexuality, which cannot result in procreation, is unnatural and against God's will. Hinduism: In the Kama Sutra sex acts involving homosexuality are regarded in some castes permissible while not in other castes.The ancient Hindu scriptures describe the homosexual condition to be a biological one, and although the scripture gives guidance to parents on how to avoid procreating a homosexual child, it does not condemn the child as unnatural. 2012 The first International Day Against Homophobia and Transphobia was held
Sexual identities typically emerge between middle childhood and early adolescence. When are sexual identities made? 40:1 Bill 13, Accepting Schools Act, 2012
“The people of Ontario and the Legislative Assembly:
Believe that education plays a critical role in preparing young people to grow up as productive, contributing and constructive citizens in the diverse society of Ontario;
Believe that all students should feel safe at school and deserve a positive school climate that is inclusive and accepting, regardless of race, ancestry, place of origin, colour, ethnic origin, citizenship, creed, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, age, marital status, family status or disability;”
A homosexual sexual identity, either gay or lesbian, refers to having attractions to members of one’s own sex. A bisexual sexual identity refers to having attractions to both men and women. An asexual sexual identity refers to an attraction without sexual desire Educators' influence on sexual identity DO THESE PEOPLE LOOK FAMILIAR? How are sexual identities made? The attraction may arise without any prior sexual experience. Some people engage in sexual activity (with same-sex and/or other-sex partners) before assigning a clear label to their sexual orientation. Factors that contribute to one's sexual identity “There is no consensus about the exact reasons that an individual develops a heterosexual, bisexual, gay, or lesbian orientation. Although research has examined the possible genetic, hormonal, developmental, social, and cultural influences on sexual orientation, no findings have concluded that sexual orientation is determined by any particular factor. Many think nature and nurture both play complex roles. Research has found no association between sexual orientations and psychopathology.” MISSION STATEMENT: The NOH8 Campaign is a charitable organization whose mission is to promote marriage, gender and human equality through education, advocacy, social media, and visual protest. NO H8 CAMPAIGN LESBIAN GAY BI TRANS YOUTH LINE HELP PHONE LINE
"The Lesbian Gay Bi Trans Youth Line is a toll-free service provided by youth for youth. We're here to offer support, information and referrals specific to your concerns. We are here because we want to be there for you – to be part of your community. We may not have lived your experiences exactly, but we can probably relate. We too, are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, transsexual, two-spirit or queer.

No question is too silly, no problem too serious. We may not have all the answers, but we're here to listen and we'll do our best to help you find the resources you need. We are sex positive and non-judgemental. We're here to help youth who are 26 and under who live anywhere in Ontario. " http://www.youthline.ca/index.php According to a public poll conducted by Time and CNN, nearly 30% and 45% of American teenagers reported ‘‘TV’’ and ‘‘friends,’’ respectively, to be their main source of information about sex; in contrast, only 7% and 3% of the American teenagers interviewed identified ‘‘parents’’ and ‘‘sex education,’’ respectively, as their main source for sex information (Stodghill, 1998).

All students benefit from a greater awareness of issues of sexual orientation as they begin the process of exploring and integrating their sexual identities (DePaul, Mary, & Uma, 2009) Today's society does not "shy" away about being open and honest about sexual identities. This poses a positive environment for children and adults as they are trying to figure out who they are. Sometimes figuring out your sexual identity is extremely hard, thus it is important to notice that being open about who you are is accepted. Having celebrities, athletes, shows and politicians helps this transition become smoother. Homophobia includes negative beliefs, attitudes, stereotypes, and behaviours toward gays and lesbians (Wright, Adams, & Bernat, 1999) Action Plan
-School climate for LGB students play a critical role in their development. (Koeing, Espelage, Aragon, & Birkette, 2008)

-The sexual minority students are more susceptible to negative consequences (i.e., high levels of depression, suicidal feelings, and alcohol and marijuana use). (Koeing et al., 2008)

-Social and institutional support, such as school, is essential components of maintaining well-being in sexual minority youth. (Koeing et al., 2008)

-Both the school and the home environment are able to be protective factors for LGB and questioning students. (Koeing et al., 2008) School Climate •Create a school climate that is safe, affirming, and conducive to learning and healthy development for all students. This can include displaying symbols that communicate openness to supportive dialogue regarding LGB issues and ensuring the availability of print and video resources that address issues significant to the development of LGB individuals (Depaul, Walsh, & Dam, 2009).

•Be openly supportive of LGB youth by promoting gay-straight alliances and other social and academic activities that support LGB youth (Depaul, Walsh, & Dam, 2009).

•Individual and group counseling (Depaul, Walsh, & Dam, 2009).

•Encourage students to research historical figures from their cultural background who identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual within the context of their coursework (Depaul, Walsh, & Dam, 2009).

•In working with families and caregivers, it is important to maintain a nonjudgmental attitude, possess the knowledge of theories and researches related to sexual identity development, and remain aware of own biases (Depaul, Walsh, & Dam, 2009).
3.1. Board Policies, Guidelines, and Practices The Toronto District School Board has approved an Equity Policy Statement which requires that ideals related to anti-homophobia and sexual orientation equity be reflected in all aspects of organizational structures, policies, guidelines, procedures, classroom practices, day-to-day operations, and communication practices.

The Toronto District School Board policies, guidelines, and practices shall ensure that the needs and safety of all students, employees, trustees, parents, volunteers, visitors, permit-holders, contractors, and partners are addressed. These shall reflect the diverse viewpoints, needs, and aspirations of members of these communities, particularly those of groups whose voices traditionally and systemically have been marginalized and excluded on the basis of their sexual orientation. This includes lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, two-spirited, transsexual, and transgender people and their families. School Board TDSB TCDSB Catholic Equity and Inclusive Education Policy H.M. 24:
The Toronto Catholic District School Board (the “Board”) recognizes that all people are deserving of dignity and are created equal in the image of God, each with inimitable characteristics (Genesis: 1:27). In accordance with the Catholic Faith and the Church’s moral teachings as found in the Catechism and other teachings of the Magisterium, the Board provides an educational environment which supports and embraces diversity within its Catholic community, demonstrates respect for all, and values each as child of God.
http://www.tcdsb.org/Board/Policies/Pages/hm24.aspx Social stigma is the extreme disapproval of, or discontent with, a person on the grounds of characteristics that distinguish them from other members of a society. Stigma may attach to a person, who differs from social or cultural norms. Through resources such as the Lesbian, Gay, Bi, Trans Youth Line, NO H8 Campaign, Positive Space at Schools, sexual minority youth have the support they need during such a critical time and can feel more comfortable being themselves. Intervention and support from teachers and school counselors makes a difference (Ponterotto, Utsey, & Pederson, 2006).

LGB students who can identify a supportive teacher or staff member are more likely to report feeling safe at school, to achieve greater academic success, and to plan to go to college after secondary school (Kosciw, 2004). RESOURCES What is a Sexual Identity? Types of Sexual Behaviour; The Surfacing of Sexual Identities
American Psychological Association. (2008). Answers to your questions: For a better understanding of sexual orientation and homosexuality. Washington, DC: Author. [Retrieved from www.apa.org/topics/sorientation.pdf.]

A Brief Canadian History
McLeod, Donald W.. A Brief History of Gay: Canada's First Gay Tabloid, 1964-1966.

Lee, J. A. (2012). Homosexuality. In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/homosexuality

The Role of Schools
Howlett, K. (2012, June 5). Catholic teachers support Ontario’s gay-straight alliance initiative. In The Globe and Mail. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/catholic-teachers-support-ontarios-gay-straight-alliance-initiative/article4234347/

Stodghill, R. II. (1998, June 15). Where’d you learn that? Time, 52–59.

DePaul, J., Mary, E. W., & Uma, C. D. (2009). The role of school counselors in addressing sexual orientation in schools.Professional School Counseling, 12(4), 300-308.

Ponterotto, J.G., Utsey, S.O., & Pederson, P. B. (2006). Preventing prejudice: A guide for counselors, educators, and parents (2nd ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Kosciw, J.G. (2004). The 2003 National School Climate Survey: The school-related experiences of our nation's gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender youth. New York: Gay Lesbian and Straight Educational Network.

Education’s Responsibilities

School climate
Koenig, B. W., Espelage, D. L., Aragon, S. R., & Birkett, M. (2008). Homophobic Teasing, Psychological Outcomes, and Sexual Orientation Among High School Students: What Influence Do Parents and Schools Have? School Psychology Review,37(2), 202-216.

Safe schools act

Ontario Ministry of Education.(2006). Making Our Schools Safer: Improving learning & teaching environments. Retrieved from the province of Ontario website: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/safeschl/eng/index.html

Bill 13: An Act to amend the Education Act with respect to bullying and other matters. (2012). Retrieved from The Legislative Assembly of Ontario website: http://ontla.on.ca/web/bills/bills_detail.do?locale=en&BillID=2549&isCurrent=&BillStagePrintId=5253&btnSubmit=go

Positive space program
The Queen’s University Positive Space Program . (2012). Mission Statement. Kingston, ON: Retrieved from the Queen’s University website: http://www.queensu.ca/positivespace/resources.html

Action plan
DePaul, J., Mary, E. W., & Uma, C. D. (2009). The role of school counselors in addressing sexual orientation in schools.Professional School Counseling, 12(4), 300-308.

School board
Toronto Catholic District School Board . (2011). Catholic Equity and Inclusive Education Policy H.M. 24. In Toronto Catholic District School Board Policy Register. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from http://www.tcdsb.org/Board/Policies/Pages/hm24.aspx

Toronto District School Board . (2012). Catholic. Section 3: Anti-Homophobia and Sexual Orientation Equity. In Toronto District School Board Guidelines, Policies, and Procedures. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from http://www.tdsb.on.ca/_site/viewitem.asp?siteid=15&menuid=7098&pageid=6194



Sexual Identity and Society Stigma
Wright, L., Adams, E., & Bernat, J. (1999). Development and validation of the homophobic scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 21, 337-347.

NOH8 Campaign. (2012). Mission Statement. Los Angeles, CA. Retrieved from NOH8 website: http://www.noh8campaign.com/

Gaga, L. (2011). Video Message to E.S.A. [Online video]. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from

Religion
Homosexuality and Religion (2012). In Religion Facts. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from http://www.religionfacts.com/homosexuality/index.htm

Resources
LGBT Youth Line. (2012). Index. Toronto, ON. Retrieved from Youth Line website: http://www.youthline.ca/index.php References HOPE YOU ENJOYED IT!! THE END
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