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Educational Theories

Created for Indiana Wesleyan University's Elementary Education Transition to Teaching program.

Kristen Montgomery

on 20 May 2011

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Transcript of Educational Theories

Theories of Learning 1. Behaviorism B.F. Skinner
Edward Thorndike
Ivan Pavlov
Clark Hull
Dorothea Lerman
Jack Michael 5. Social Learning Theory 2. Cognitive-Development Theory 4. Sociocultural Theory 3. Information Processing Theory Jean Piaget
Jerome Bruner
Robbie Case
Kurt Fischer
Lawrence Kohlberg Richard Atkinson
Richard Shiffrin
John Anderson
Alan Baddeley
Elizabeth Loftus Albert Bandura
Dale Schunk
Barry Zimmerman Lev Vygotsky
Barbara Rogoff
Jean Lave
Mary Gauvain Key Ideas Only behavior and stimuli should be assesessed and controlled because thought processes cannot be observed
Behavior can be increased by being reinforced (rewarded)
Behavior can be decreased by being punished
People are motivated by internal drives for necessary things such as food and desired things such as praise Stimuli: events which influence a person's behavior
Response: a person's behavior in reacting to a stimulus
Reinforcement: a consequence that rewards a person's response, causing him/her to repeat that response
Punishment: a consequence that penalizes a person's response, causing him/her to avoid that response
Operant Conditioning: the idea that a response will be repeated more if it is reinforced Key Terms Behaviorists Developed modern behaviorism Discovered classical conditioning Theorists Key Terms Key Ideas People learn by watching other people
People succeed by believing in their capabilities to succeed
People are goal-oriented (foundation of the Goal Theory) Modeling: imitating the behavior of other people
Self-efficacy: a person's belief that he/she can succeed
Self-regulation: a person monitoring and controlling his/her own behavior Also called: Social Cognitive Theory Key Terms People develop in typical patterns or stages which build on themselves
Not all people develop at the same rate
Students are uncomfortable when they cannot explain something (disequilibrium)
Students experiencing disequilibrium work to understand and reach equilibrium, causing equilibration Key Ideas Stages: periods of growth that each person experiences
Scheme: "organized group of similar actions or thoughts that are used repeatedly in response to the environment" (Ormrod, 2009)
Assimilation: a person reacting to a situation according to a current scheme
Accomodation: a person reacting to a situation by modifying a current scheme or developing a new scheme
Equilibrium: ability to explain situations through current schemes
Disequilibrium: inability to explain situations through current schemes
Equilibration: development of critical thinking as learners move from equilibrium to disequilibrium to equilibrium Theorists Attention: focusing the mind on an object, stimuli, or piece of information
Storage: three-step system of putting information into memory

Elaboration: people expanding on learned information by applying it to information they already know
Visual Imagery: creating mental images of information
Encoding: rearranging information into a format that is easy to remember
Retrieval: locating information previously placed in the long-term memory
Retrieval Cue: an idea or thought that tells the mind where to locate information in the long-term memory Key Terms Theorists Key Ideas The human mind works like complicated machinery
Internal cognitive processes (not external stimuli) determine how and what people learn
Attention is a key element to true learning
When learners pay attention to the information they are intaking through their sensory register, the information is put into their working memory
Information moves to the long-term memory when a person knows the information but is not currently processing it
Information can be retrieved from the long-term memory into the working memory by using a retrieval cue
People process information better when they use techniques such as elaboration and visual imagery Behaviorism in the Classroom Analyze classroom stimuli to determine why students behave in certain patterns
Reward students' appropriate behavior and successful learning
Punish students' inappropriate behavior Information Processing Theory in the Classroom Teach students that they must pay attention in order to learn
Help students elaborate information to increase memory and recall
Teach students proper study and memory techniques such as elaboration, visual imagery, and mnemonics Cognitive-Development Theory in the Classroom Determine expectations for students by recognizing which stage of cognitive development each student has reached
Present puzzling ideas or experiences and allow students to discover inconsistencies between their current beliefs (schemes) and the truth
Guide students who are having disequilibrium to discover the truth and experience equilibration Social Learning/Cognitive Theory in the Classroom Show students how to complete learning tasks
Encourage students with the knowledge that they can succeed, creating self-efficacy in them
Model appropriate learning and social behaviors for the students
Help students set goals for themselves Key Terms Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD): learning that a student cannot do independently, but can accomplish with assistance
Internalization: absorbing correct social behavior into a person's own thinking processes
Distributed Intelligence: people behave more intelligently when they are helped through physical, symbolic, or social tools
Reciprocal Teaching: allowing students to take turns playing the teacher by asking questions and guiding discussion (used to teach reading/listening comprehension)
Scaffolding: techniques to help a student complete a task in his/her zone of proximal development
Apprenticeship: a mentorship where an adult teaches and guides a student Children learn appropriate behavior and cultural standards from their authorities and peers
Students have a range of information they are capable of learning with help (zone of proximal development)
Students learn best with the help of others Key Ideas Sociocultural Theory in the Classroom Give students help and tools to complete tasks in their ZPD
Have students take turns asking teacher-like questions during reading discussion (reciprocal teaching)
Encourage students to work together and with adults to complete learning tasks Theorists Theorists, Key Terms, Key Ideas, and Theories in the Classroom Some Cognitive Development Theoriests are also Jean Piaget
Jerome Bruner
John Bransford
Giyoo Hatano Constructivists Rather than assimilating knowledge, people construct meaning and knowledge from their observations Key Ideas Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor {Birth-Age 2} Preoperational {Age 2-Age 6 or 7} Concrete Operations {Age 6 or 7-Age 11 or 12} Formal Operations {Age 11 or 12-Adulthood} - Children learn by observing characteristics of the world around them
- Children only think about things directly in front of them - Children's language (capabilities) increase(s) quickly
- Children think about things they are not looking at
- Children do not yet reason logically like adults - Children begin to reason like adults
- Children think/reason about concrete objects and scenarios
- Children cannot yet think through abstract ideas
- Children understand conservation (idea that an object stays the same amount or weight even when its shape changes as long as none is taken away) - Children, adolescents, and adults think logically through abstract ideas and scenarios including advanced sciences and maths - Sensory Register: internal memory mechanism that absorbs unanalyzed information
- Working (Short-Term) Memory: internal memory mechanism that contains and actively uses limited amounts of information
- Long-Term Memory: internal memory mechanism that stores large amounts of information until they are needed References Ormrod, J. E. (2009). Essentials of Educational Psychology (2ndnd ed.). Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
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