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Art History: Romanesque-Impresssionism
Transcript of Art History: Romanesque-Impresssionism
St. Lazare at Autun, France Arched area below the arch and above the lintel of a doorway (entrance of the church) -Romanesque art is often associated with the church.
-Intended to help the people understand the teachings of the church (Didactic). The blessed goes to the heaven The sinners go to hell What do you see in this tympanum?
How does the left and right differ? They're happy They're being sent to hell They're being
lifted up. Use arrow keys to navigate Frescoes ("Fresh"): Painting on wet plastered wall. Bayeux Tapestry 'Battle of Hasting' -Battle of Hasting: One of the most important historic event.
-Wool embroidered frieze (230 feet long and 20 inches high) decorated the Bayeux Cathedral.
-Documentation of the battle with soldiers, horses, weapons, shields, towns, animals, and invasion fleets. Note the attention to detail: different weapons, patterns on clothes, animals Notre-Dame-la-Grande,
Poitiers, France Do you think the Church looks better with the helmets? What element of Roman architecture do you see? -stone vaults
-rounded arches -Better acoustic
-Eliminate danges of fire -Barrel-vaulted (small windows, heavy, dark)
-The exterior has more sculpture than many Romanesque churches
-Feature of Romanesque churches and castles: Towers, cones, thick walls, stone materials, and small windows. Where else have you seen that? Disney Castle "Ugly" "Created by barbarians" (Goths) 1150-1515 1100-1250 Perspective
Detail: Smoke Wrinkling of clothes influenced by architecture- paintings started to show sense of depth
-Use of gold is an element of Gothic painting (i.e. Illuminated Manuscripts) Unity is the key concept in Gothic architecture -Interior and exterior belong together and emphasis is equal
-Structure, aesthetics, purpose and meaning are fused together to create a sense of wholeness
-This unity is astonishing because it took several generations to complete the buildings. Flying buttresses: Why? -The use of flying buttresses (flying arches combined with tower buttresses) eliminated the need for heavy, solid Romanesque walls and allowed for the construction of a self-supporting skeletal structure.
-This allowed huge winow walls of stained glass. Giotto vs. Duccio Duccio
What detail has Duccio used to make the scene seem more human and believable? 3 things that's different from
Giotto and Duccio's painting? 1. Use of perspective by Giotto (objects gets smaller as it is further away from the foreground.
2. Landscape: Giotto observed from real life.
3. Facial expression much more exaggerated by Giotto. A: Medici family Florence, Italy Duomo, Cathedral of Florence Flippo Brunelleschi Compare the interior.
some similiarities and differences? San Lorenzo
Florence, Italy Notre Dame
Paris, France Claude Monet The Rouen Cathedral Can you tell what time of the day it is? 1 2 3 4 5 Edouard Manet Pierre Auguste Renoir Auguste Rodin Donatello David, 1430-1432 Gothic style architecture began in 1140 outside Paris, when Abbot Suger needed to expand his small church to accommodate the many pilgrims who were visiting the chapel.
The main concern was the light.
Windows replaced walls
The flying buttresses allowed distribution of the weight
Rose windows were placed over the main portal at the ends of the transept "Rebirth" Ruling family: Dome was built as two shells, one inside the other. The shells were linked with ribs and supports to support each other.
140 feet in diameter and rises 300 feet above the floor.
Used basic geometrical shapes and simple proportions (Gothic interiors are elaborate and decorative but Brunelleschi simplified) Greatest sculptor of his time
Combination of Classical style and Renaissance expression
First life-size freestanding nude statue since the ancient times Masaccio The Tribute Money, 1427 Masaccio used light never done before: one source of light (coming from the right)
Use of atmospheric perspective to add sense of depth
Single vanishing point of the building (right above the Christ’s head). High Renaissance Short period in Rome and Venice
Primary center was Rome
During the High Renaissance, artists began to be viewed as geniuses rather than craftsperson’s. -Believed that artists created under divine inspiration
Unlike Early Renaissance artists that replied on formulas, scientific perspective, ratios and proportions to structure their work, High Renaissance artists disregarded those rules and let their feelings dictate their style. Leonardo da Vinci Michelangelo Buonarroti Pietà, 1499-1500
The folds of the drapery and the feeling of flesh are superbly handled.
Carved from a single block of marble -Triangular composition-Angel points to the infant John the Baptist-Leonardo leads the viewer from one figure to another and it finally rests on the face of the Virgin-Dramatic contrast of light in the background: Chiaroscuro -Woman sits in a relaxed position-Landscape in the background that shows distance with a technique called sfumato (hazy effect by blending colours)-Mona Lisa’s smile and identity have been the subject of endless speculations-This painting must have been a particular favourite of Leonardo’s because he carried it with him until he died. Raphael
Embodies perfectly the spirit of the High Renaissance.
Important figures are depicted here: Socrates, Pythagoras, Euclid, Bramante, Michelangelo, Leonardo (as Plato).
Raphael includes himself as a bystander (right corner). Believe that colour and mood
There are up to 30-40 glazes
Displayed brushstrokes to add texture (painterly) Titian Northern Renaissance Bound Slaves How is the Northern Renaissance art different from the Italian Renaissance?
Artists used everyday objects
Great attention to detail
Oil paint was a new innovation (allow broad range of colour and value)
Focused on powerful sense of realism, unlike the Italian Renaissance that returned to the aesthetics and ideals of classical antiquity. Albrecht Dürer Jan van Eyck Hans Holbein Left: French Ambassador to England, Jean de Dinteville
Right: Bishop Georges de Selve
Objects in the paintings are virtual catalog of the two men’s interests and possessions
Lower left foreground- elongated shape The French Ambassadors, 1533 Leader of German Renaissance
Attempted to raise the status of art in Germany and the rest of northern Europe
Believed that, like Leonardo da Vinci, through looking truth is revealed.
The pose is Italian, but the line is still German (Hair is not treated as a mass but as individual lines) the younger Symbols:
- Raised hand and the dog is a symbol of Fidelity
- Clogs set aisde symbolize the couples standing on holy ground
- Peaches riping on the chest symbolize Fertility -Van Eyck was a witness: “Jan van Eyck was here in 1434”
-The convex mirror not only shows the back of the couple, but it also shows Van Eyck and another person, as well. Who? Significance? Mona Lisa, 1503-1506 Virgin of the Rocks, 1485 The School of Athens, 1510-1511 Arnolfini Portrait, 1435 Exuberant Emotional Power & Seriousness Gianlorenzo Bernini The Ecstasy of St. Theresa, 1645-1653 Captures the Baroque spirit
The sculpture commemorates a mystical event involving St. Theresa. Pain caused by an angel of God stabbing her with fire-tipped arrow.
Show the weight and lightness of the robe. Caravaggio Deposition of Christ, 1602-1604 Tightly composed group
The black background creates intense drama
Contrasts: Light and dark; life and death; hunched figures with erect; horizontal and vertical and diagonal
The exaggerated darks and lights are called tenebrism Artemisia Gentileschi Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes, 1625 Followed Caravaggio’s extreme lighting technique
Single light source- the candle
Foreshortening of the maidservant Baroque Ceiling in Rome Figures in the ceiling that appears to be floating and soaring.
A mark on the floor indicated where the figures can be viewed most accurately
Stucco (plaster) figures also were contained
the relief made it seem like the figures were tumbling out of the picture
Shows opening into the heaven. Sloping vault ceiling adds to the 3-dimensional appearance Judith Leyster
Boy with Flute, 1635
Balance of the boy and the instruments hung on the wall
the boy is self-absorbed in playing the flute
Shows that she enjoys what she does-Cheerful figures are remarkable Peter Paul Rubens The Lion Hunt, 1616 Boils with violent activity
The straight swords stabilize the writhing composition and lead the viewer’s eyes to the central area.
Foreshortening is handled with mastery Jan Vermeer Woman holding a balance, 1664 The foreground object, rumpled cloth, is somewhat out of focus. The focus is one the woman
The light bounces of the woman’s red dress onto the table
Painting in the background: Christ on Judgment Day; This gives new meaning to the pearls and gold. Pearls: rep earthly possessions that account for nothing in the end. -Woman is pregnant- celebration of life-Double significance is often seen in Vermeer’s work Rembrandt van Rijn Group portrait very popular in Holland-Life size (11 feet high)
Each person depicted here pays and they all expect equal treatment in attention
Some men were disappointed because only their eyes and top of his head can be seen The Shooting Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (The Night Watch), 1642 Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velazquez Combines the formality of a royal group portrait and the casual scene in his studio
The painter represents himself
The king and queen is reflected in the mirror on the far wall
The artist’s goal is to show countless ways a light can be reflected (lights coming for multiple directions) Las Meninas (The Maids of Honour), 1656 Jacques Louis David Roman story to arouse passion for French unity-Story of love and patriotisms. Rome against Alba- the three brothers make an oath even tho one of the brothers is married to an Alban, as well as one of the sisters at the right.
Clearly indicates the importance and honour of patriotisms over love Oath of Horatii, 1784-1785 Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Cool and undramatic
Included Classical geniuses from various periods: Phidias, Pindar, Aeschylus and Apelles, Raphael, Leonardo, Fra Angelico and Poussin, Shakespeare and Moliere (similar idea as School of Athens) Apotheosis of Homer, 1827 Back to classicism Greek/Roman
Antiquity Francisco Goya Third of May, 1808 Slaughter of Spanish rebels by French soldiers
Depicts incredible inhumanity of human beings toward each other
Compare brush strokes, edge of colour, emotional feling and sense of action with David’s The Oath of Horatii Theodore Gericault Raft of Madusa, 1818-1819 Michelangelo’s influence and Gericault’s Romantic spirit
Gericault was always interested in humanity’s struggle with nature
Painting build around 2 pyramids. One of the dying, dead and tragic figures, and the other of hope and struggle. Eugene Delacroix Goya Gericault Bernini Caravaggio Gentileschi Liberty Leading the People, 1830 Inspired by the 1830 insurrection in Paris
Allegorical figure of liberty holding the French flag-Shows the horror and violence of fighting
Included his self-portrait: Businessman in the front with a gun Joseph Mallord William Turner Snow Storm: Steam-boat off a harbour's mouth, 1824 Sun Rising through Vapour, 1807 His later works are nonrepresentational
Composition of swirling colour and light
Pure movement of masses of colour without representational meaning
Violent action is achieved without portraying people or things
No one at this time knew anything of nonrepresentational painting, so he added the representation of a ship
This work anticipates the Impressionist movement
When Calude Monet spent time in London in 1870, the work of Turner profoundly impacted him and the rest of the Impressionists. Adjective that describes the styles of:
-Romanticism Everyday See & Experience Working class Powerful treatment of simple workers and their daily tasks
Simple design, but powerful and fitting for the subject.
Realism in colour, form and simplicity.
Doesn’t glorify or unnecessarily embellish the peasant women.
Millet’s simple dignity of his subjects has a direct influence on van Gogh’s paintings. The Gleanders, 1857 Jean François Millet Honoré Daumier He deals with the public where he finds them in their urban environment, his subjects did not pose for him
He used grids to transfer drawings from his smaller sketches. Because he used thin layers of paint, the grids are often visible. The Third Class Carriage, 1862 Natural light Instant Colour of light We don’t see the stones that the Cathedral is made out of, but instead we see the light on the surface of the Cathedral.
He recorded different lights in more than 30 canvases-Colour and light became a new way of seeing The Railway, 1873
Flatness that is fascinating (women’s face)
Painting appears to be “cropped” in all four corners
Snapshot of the woman and child. She looks like she’ll go back to reading after this glance.
Unfinished look (very much different from Realism, Neoclassicism) The Waitress, 1878
Later work- he leaves his flatness and even patches of colour
Adopts the looser, longer strokes and vibrating colour of the Impressionist.
The arrangement of the figure is that the painting looks instantaneous. Dance at the Moulin de la Galette Montmartre, 1876
Flickering light filters through the trees and speckles the people with bits of sunshine
No use of black, but shadows are tinged with blue In the Meadows, 1892
In his later works, he combined the two styles: classic form of balancing objects and shimmering effects of impressionism
Cool colours used for shadow
Figures blend softly with the background; there is no outline
He transformed the instantaneity of Impressionism into a powerful, three-dimensional work
Rodin left his sculptures seemingly unfinished
Critics and patrons often rejected his work that they commissioned The Thinker, 1878-1889 Design Composition Explore Georges Seurat He palced his figures extremely carefully
Colour is applied in tiny dots, each about a size of a pencil eraser. From distance the viewers eyes mix these two colours to create a new colour (i.e. blue + red= purple)
This technique is called pointillism (similar to the mosaic idea)
Same technique is used in television screens and prints Paul Cézanne Mont Sainte-Victoire, 1904 He painted using flat, squarish patches or planes of colour
Colours and values are distributed over the picture plane to produce a visual balance
Though the painting seems dominated by mountain, the whole painting is equally treated with relatively small, squarish, flat abstract planes of colour Still Life with Apples and Peaches, 1905 Uses colour to build form
Distortion: Vase, bowl, arrangement of the fruit, but everything is done purposely to produce better design.
Design of the painting was more important to Cézanne than the imitaion of the original still life.
Vincent Van Gogh Contrasts Seurat’s calculated painting technique
Lots of movement of the brushstrokes add activity to the landscape. The stars not only glow, but they move violently.
The moon appears to provide stability to the sky Starry Night, 1889 Paul Gauguin Religious experience important to Gauguin
Used stained-glass window colours-Modeling and perspective are minimal The Vision After the Sermon (Jacob wrestling with the angel), 1888 La Orana Maria, 1891
Used the native figures as religious icons
Mary and Christ
Two women standby as if in worship
Gauguin incorporates colourful and symbolic forms with a Tahitian setting to produce a unified painting What did the Impressionist learn from the Realist? Between late 18th century to early 19th century, in the Western world, three different art styles dominated: Neoclassicism, Romanticism and Realism.
Neoclassicism had its base in France (ruled by Napoleon Bonaparte)-Napoleon had a particular taste, favoured the classical Greek and Roman art. Passion Emotion For test artist’s intention
treatment of subject
use of colour Writing section: Example: artist’s intention
treatment of subject
use of colour