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Alcohols and Ethers, Organic chemistry can be fun!

A new type of presentation for looking at old information, on basic organic chemistry.

Jena Niceforo

on 13 December 2010

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Transcript of Alcohols and Ethers, Organic chemistry can be fun!

Alcohols and Ethers By: Deva, Jena, Melissa, and Nicole Section 1.5 What is an Alcohol exactly? Well, since we're talking about organic chemistry, you would think that alcohols are in fact organic compounds. They are. Infact alcohols are not only organic, but they are characterized by the presence of a hydroxyl group (-OH). Alcohols are essentially alkyl groups with one of the H atoms replaced with an -OH functional group.
The general formula for Alcohols Important! But it all sounds so complex!
Well hold on theres more coming! Any questions so far...? Wait, Aren't Alcohols exclusive to
advanced organic chemistry laboratories
and universities with a lot of funding? No Way! For Real? Totally. In that case where can I find Alcohols? A better question would be where can't you find alcohols? The 'alcohol' in wine and beer is actualy ethanol. Isopropyl alcohol is sold as rubbing alcohol and is used to manufacture acetone (nail polish remover). Ethanediol is used in antifreeze for car radiators. 1,2,3 propanetriol is used in skin moisturizers hand lotions and lipsticks. You know cholesterol that accumulates in your gallbladder when you eat too many fatty foods is an alcohol. So how do we name Alcohols? Well we have to know some fundamental rules when it comes to naming organic compounds. In the IUPAC system for naming alcohols the suffix -ol is added to the parent alkane, which is the longest carbon chain in which the -OH group is attached. In that case, who wants to name this alcohol? If you said Heptanol, You'rrrrrrree Right!
If you didn't, Oh well. Now to shake things up. What if the hydroxyl group is not bonded to the final carbon in the chain? Dun Dun DUHHHHHH! In that case those alcohols are classified as primary, secondary or tertiary alcohols. Respectively, the same way we number substituent groups we number hydroxyl groups. So... Can you tell me what the name and class of the following alcohols are? If you said 2 Propanol a 2nd Degree Alcohol,
and 2 Methyl 2 Propanol a 3rd Degree Alcohol
You'rrrrre Right! If not Oh well. Now, what about if you have
more than one hydroxyl group
attached to the parent chain? These kinds of alcohols are called Polyalcohols. Y'know more than one alcohol. How do you name polyalcohols? There is only one rule for naming polyalcohols, maybe two. If an alcohol has two hydroxyl groups attached to the parent chain then the suffix -diol is added to the parent chain. If an alcohol has three hydroxyl groups attached to the parent chain then the suffix -triol us added to the parent chain. Now we can practice this method
(YAY!) Aww it's so cute <3 What are the names of these alcohols? If you said 1,2 Ethanediol and 2,5 hexanediol You'rrrre Right! If not Oh well. Hey, We've covered A lot!
But wait...What if you're alcohol is cyclic? Well if it's cyclic then add the prefix cyclo- to the parent hydrocarbon chain. What if there is a benzene ring involved? But but but but.... Then, we have aromatic alcohols, alcohols that smell good? Yup! The simplest aromatic alcohol is Phenol, a benzene ring with a hydroxyl group. The same rules apply with aromatic alcohols except the prefix phen- is used. Now we know the names of these compounds, thats nice. But how does that tell us their properties? To determine that we have to take a closer look at molecular structure. Alcohols are typically polar,
that means that alcohols are
soluble in water Why are alcohols soluble in water? Solubilities of Alcohols in Water
Formula Name Solubility in
Water (g/100 g)
CH3OH methanol infinitely soluble
CH3CH2OH ethanol infinitely soluble
CH3(CH2)2OH propanol infinitely soluble
CH3(CH2)3OH butanol 9
CH3(CH2)4OH pentanol 2.7
CH3(CH2)5OH hexanol 0.6
CH3(CH2)6OH heptanol 0.18
CH3(CH2)7OH octanol 0.054
CH3(CH2)9OH decanol insoluble in water Here is some experimental proof on solubility. What are other physical properties of alcohols? Alcohols have high boiling and melting points. But, WHY? What do alcohols smell like? What can we do with alcohols? Ethanol is the only consumable alcohol even though it is considered a narcotic and poisonous, infact all alcohols are poisonous. Ethanol can also be used as fuel, on it's own or mixed with petrol. Lastly Ethanol can be used as a solvent for non-polar or hydrophobic solutes that do not readily dissociate in water. What are ethers? Organic compounds! ...Seriously, were doing organic chemistry, one would think so... Ethers are organic compounds with two alkyl grounds attached by an oxygen atom. The general formula
of an ether is Important! Well now i know where to find alcohols where in the world am i going to find an ether? As it turns out ethers are not so
common, diethyl ether is used as anesthesia, and
painkilling medicine. Methyl Butyl Ethers are sometimes used in gasoline to reduce pollution and imporove engine efficiency. Crown ethers are used as phase transfer catalysts. Dimethyl ether is commonly used as an aerosol spray propellant. Ether Nomenclature...
Exciting isin't it? There is a small
trick to naming
Ethers. Ethers are named by adding -oxy to the prefix of the smaller hydrocarbon group. In addition you may encounter
names for ethers derrived from two alkyl groups followed by the term ether. Let's do an example! If you said Diethyl Ether You'rrrrrre Right! Let's talk polarity now The oxygen in ethers allow for some hydrogen bonding
However, since ethers are not really soluble in water would you call it polar? The Answer: They are sort of polar, but more non-polar than anything, and as a result they are more soluble than the alkane series but less soluble than alcohols. How does this change ether properties? Well... As a result boiling points and melting points are significantly reduced, however those hydrogen bonding opportunities do make a difference considering Alkane boiling points.
So where does that put ethers, somewhere in the middle between alcohols and alkanes. How can I smell an ether? With Your nose. It can be hard to describe the odour of a compound,
and ethers are unique in such a way that their odours
range from pungent, sweet, nauseating or fruity. What are ethers used for? -Ethers can be used for a wide variety of anesthetics that are used to relieve pain in surgery or just plain know someone out. -Diethyl ether is used as a solvent for fats and oils of hydrophobic organic compounds. -Methyl Butyl ethers are used in gasoline to reduce pollution and improve engine efficiency. So. Now you know about Alcohols and Ethers. This is just about the end of the presentation. Or so you thought... We have one
more trick up
our sleeve. Muahaha Time to
watch the semi-relevent awesome video! The End.
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