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Human Needs and Motivation: Eat, Drink, and Be Daring
Transcript of Human Needs and Motivation: Eat, Drink, and Be Daring
Obesity may lead to heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and premature death
Studies show that two- thirds of the population is obese
Back in the 19th century being over weight was considered attractive in society
Now society relates being overweight with laziness and poor health
However controlling weight is complicated due to the varieties of different behaviors Background on Obesity Complex biological mechanisms tell organisms whether they require food or should stop eating
One important factor in hunger is the changes in chemical composition of the blood
Hormones inside of our bodies are the cause of hunger
Glucose, a kind of sugar regulates the feeling of hunger while insulin stores excess sugar in the blood as fats and carbohydrates. That is when the hormone Ghrelin communicates the feeling of hunger to the brain.Then the Hypothalamus monitors the glucose levels in the body
Genetics also play a role in how your metabolism works
Metabolism-The rate at which food is converted into energy and expanded by the body
People with a high metabolic rate can eat as much as they want with out gaining weight, whereas people with a low metabolic rate can eat half as much and still gain weight Biological Factors in the Regulation of Hunger Internal biological factors are not the only thing making you feel hungry.
Society has also become a huge reason why people are overeating
Cultural influences play an important role on how much food we eat, when we eat, and what we are eating
For instance people in the United States eat bigger portions than people in France.
Other social factors such as stress and being tired may cause certain people to over eat as well
Parents tend to give their children junk food when they get cranky and upset to cheer them up. When these children grow up they associate food with feelings and comfort. This is a learned behavior Which creates people to overeat junk food when they are tired or stressed Social Factors in Eating Some psychologist suggest that social factors along with internal factors are the reason people are obese
Another belief is that people who are obese have higher weight set points which cause them to get discouraged when they cant lose weight and they then end up eating more and becoming even more overweight
Another suggestion is that people who are obese have a higher level of the hormone leptin. Leptin protects the body more against losing weight then it does against gaining weight which can lead to obesity
Fat cells are another cause of obesity
At birth the body stores fat either by increasing the number of fat cells or increasing the size of existing fat cells.
Finally Others believe that the nature of your environment can cause obesity. If you are around unhealthy foods all the time you are more prone to gain weight The Roots of Obesity Eating Disorders
Eating disorders are the 10 most frequent causes of disability in young women
Anorexia Nervosa- A severe eating disorder where people may refuse to eat while denying that their behavior and their skeletal like appearance is unusual
10% of people with anorexia end up dying from starvation
Females between the ages of 12 and 40 are most likely to develop this disorder
Usually anorexia occurs after a person tries to lose weight through serious dieting that somehow gets out of control
Most of the people who suffer from anorexia can only think about food and soon their hole lives revolve around the thought of food
Another eating disorder is Bulimia which is a disorder in which people binge on large quantities of food. This person then feels guilty about how much food they consumed that they feel the urge to vomit or abuse laxatives.
Constant binging and purging cycles and the use of laxatives can lead to heart failure
Studies show that 1-4 percent of high school and college aged women suffer from anorexia or bulimia while 10 percent of women have suffered from bulimia at some point in their lives Causes of Anorexia and
Bulimia Some Psychologist believe that these disorders are caused by chemical imbalances in the hypothalamus or pituitary glands
Brain scans have shown that people with these disorders process info on food differently then healthy individuals
On the other hand some believe that these disorders are caused by the root of society and how they perceive "skinny" The Needs for Achievement, Affliction, and Power The Need for Power: Striving for Impact on Others The Need for Achievement: Striving for Excellence The Need for Affliction: Striving for Friendship Need for Achievement- is a stable, learned characteristic in which a person obtains satisfaction by achieving their goals