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Syrian Revolution

A Guide to the Syrian Revolution
by

Banah Gha

on 25 April 2016

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Transcript of Syrian Revolution

What can you do to help?
Syria has a 26% unemployment rate, 40% poverty
In the 2000s, Syria had was what was called “social market reform.”
Rami Makhlouf, the president’s cousin, drove smaller businesspeople into unemployment, expanded gap between rich and poor.
Ranked lowest on Global Integrity’s scale rating the reliability and anti-corruption conditions for business.
Population:
22.4 million
+ 16-23 million outside

Syria is a patchwork
quilt of ethnic groups
and religions:


Kurds, Arabs, Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmen, Circassians

Sunni, Christian, Alawite, Druze, Ismailia,
Twelver Shia,Yazidi, Jewish
49 years of one-party rule since 1963
4,500 political prisoners before revolution began
17,000 Forced Disappearances before the current uprising began
1950's-1970's: Independence from colonialism in the Arab World
Heroes and military leaders of resistance movements
become presidents for life
Background
Syrians forced into Exile
Historical context
Revolution Syria:
The Struggle Continues

Follow Hashtags:
#Syria #FreeSyria #SyriaBleeds

Facebook Pages:
Save the Children of Syria
Syrian Days of Rage-English

Websites:
http://mar15.info/
Read the Amnesty International Human Rights Report

How to help?
Sudan
Iraq
Egypt
Libya
Syria
1970: General Hafez
Assad takes over Syria
Keeping you safe from imperialism
Keeping you safe from Islamists
Keeping you safe from Israel

Dissenters are kidnapped or slaughtered
Concentration camps for dissidents (Nasser)
Halabca massacre of 15,000, 1988 (Saddam)
Hama massacre, of 10-22,000, 1982 (Assad)
1982
2010
2005
(cc) image by jantik on Flickr
The Seeds of Revolution in Syria
Stop the killing
Who are the Martyrs?
Revolution Statistics. In 385 days:
Syrians killed: 12,195
Children killed: 948
Females killed: 761
Soldiers killed: 1,081
Missing: +65,000
Protestors killed under torture: 491
Protestors currently incarcerated: +212,000
Syrian refugees since March: +34,648
Hama Massacre
Corruption, Poverty, Police State in Syria
President's Brother,
Maher Assad:
Head of 17 Military Branches
Feb 2011:
Solidarity Vigils
Muslim Brotherhood Uprising:
Between 17,000 and 40,000 slaughtered
Government completely denies
Leftist political prisoners also detained by the thousands- Hizb al Shaghila (Worker's party)
The Revolution Begins
Schoolchildren of Dera'a,
Feb 27, 20’11
-Ages 9-14
-Imprisoned for revolution grafitti
-Tortured
-Parents’ appeals mocked

March 17 & 18 rallies: the masses move
Dara, & 4 other cities
March 15 rally: disenfranchised urban youth, Damascus
Damascus March 15th 2011: One of the first protests
Beatings on all parts of the body, involving punching, slapping and/or kicking,
administered with fists, feet, sticks, truncheons, braided cables, whips or butts of
Kalashnikov-type weapons
Hair being pulled or pulled out
Cigarettes stubbed out on the body
Flesh gouged by pincers
Dulab (tyre), whereby the victim is forced into a vehicle tyre which is often then hoisted
up and the individual is beaten
Falaqa, beating on the soles of the feet
Bisat al-rih (flying carpet), whereby the victim is strapped face-up onto a foldable
wooden board, the two ends of which are moved towards each other causing significant pain
to the lower back; during the process, the victim is beaten
Shabeh whereby the victim is hung by manacled wrists, or from a hook or over a door, or
occasionally by the feet, often for long periods and usually beaten; sometimes in a stress
position where the detainee must keep his toes on the floor
Crucifixion – another form of suspension torture where the victim is tied to a wall or
frame with the arms outstretched in a crucifixion position
Stress positions, such as being forced to stand for hours on tip-toe
Exposure to excessive cold, such as being kept outside often only in underwear overnight
or for other long periods
Being subjected to sexual violence
Being forced to watch the rape of another detainee
Torture in Syria
Who are the organizers?
1. Grassroots
2. Free Syrian Army
3. Traditional Political Opposition
Picture: March 2011, Freedom Days Syria Facebook Page
Why do dictatorships take over?
Statistics: English.AlJazeera.com, Strategic Centre for Research and Communications www.strescom.org, Ambiguities of Domination: Politics, Rhetoric, and Symbols in Contemporary Syria, Lisa Wedeen (1999)
Sources: Syria Center for Policy Research, www.scpr-syria.org, & Global Integrity Report, http://www.globalintegrity.org
1. Local Coordinating Committees of Syria

2. General Commission of the Syrian Revolution

3. Higher Commission of the Syrian Revolution
Suheir Atassi
Razan Zeitouneh
Emerged in Sept. 2011
Defected government soldiers band with Syrian youth
2000: Druze Protests, 20 killed
2004: Kurdish Protests, 35 Killed
Kahf, Mohja. "Then and Now: The Syrian Revolution to Date." http://www.fnvw.org/vertical/Sites/%7B8182BD6D-7C3B-4C35-B7F8-F4FD486C7CBD%7D/uploads/Syria_Special_Report-web.pdf
Early 2000's
1. Syrian National Council

2. Syrian National Coalition of Opposition and Revolutionary Forces
Gendered Strategies
Live Street Theatre
Social Media Activism
Guerilla Art Movements
Humanitarian
Organizing
Hijab & Niqaab as a Shield
Solidarity Campaigns
Vigils & Commemoration Services
Syrian Women and Creative Resistance
Ways to help THIS WEEK

Fast on Fridays, in solidarity with Friday protests
Give to UNICEF Syrian refugee children's fund
http://www.unicef.org/, or the Syrian Sunrise Foundation
Plan fundraisers for refugee relief
Join local rallies- Walk for the Children of Syria
Tweet, facebook, instagram, tumble, youtube and blog about it with hashtags #FreeSyria, #SyriaBleeds
Write an op ed to the local newspaper- spread the word
Organize a flash mob in solidarity on your campus
Sept. 22: Syrian Women Strike Internationally "Hungry for Peace"
Facebook Pages References
Justice for Detainees in Syria
Freedom Days
Stop the Killing, We Want to Build a Country for All Syrians
The uprisings of women in the Arab World
The Syrian Days of Rage-English
Syrian Nonviolence Movement
Behind Bars But Free

Local Coordinating Committee:
http://www.lccsyria.org/en/

Women Under Siege- Rape Crisis Documentation Project
http://womenundersiegesyria.crowdmap.com/

Strategic Research and Communications Centre (for up to date information on the Syrian crisis)
http://www.strescom.org/

The Creative Memory of the Syrian Revolution
http://www.creativememory.org

Violations Documentation Centre
https://www.vdc-sy.info/index.php/en/


Artists and Activists
Amjad Rasmi
Wissam al Jazairy
Orwa Nyrabia
Dina Naser
Rima Dali
Razan Zeitouneh
Suheir al Atassi
Afra Jalabi
Mariam Jalabi
Razzan Ghazzawi
Loubna Mrie

Damascus Spring: 2000-2001
Damascus Declaration 2005
Reading List
The Shell
by Mustafa Khalifa
The Burning Country
--Robin Yassin Kassab
A Woman in the Crossfire
--Samar Yazbek
Demanding Dignity
--Maytha al Hassan
Dissident Syria
--Miriam Cooke
Razan Ghazzawi's blog
: https://razanghazzawi.org/
Full transcript