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Evolution of the horse

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Elizabeth Larson

on 7 March 2013

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Transcript of Evolution of the horse

By Elizabeth Larson Evolution of the Horse The Modern Horse Changes to Environment Structural Changes Genetic Equilibrium Allelic Frequency Evolution Continued Ancestral Evidence General Characteristics Ancestral Environment Loss of 5 toes The single toe has reached a state of current genetic equilibrium because there are no longer any selectional pressures on that trait or existing functional mutations. Natural Selection I know that the horse evolved from smaller equines because the modern horse and prehistoric horse share very many traits, and a wide variety of equines are in fossil records on different continents. Food Hay
Proccessed combinations of the above can also be fed, like grain. http://www.smithbrosmulch.com/store/media/catalog/product/cache/1/image/800x800/9df78eab33525d08d6e5fb8d27136e95/h/a/hay_bale_1.jpg http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/alfalfa-herbal-remedies-1.jpg herbivores
2/3 of weight carried on forehand
absence of gall bladder
mane and tail
built for long distance running Predators http://www.ejphoto.com/images_UT/UT_Cougar17.jpg Wolves
Cougars Environmental Needs Domestic Wild Source of water year round
Shelter: trees/ ridges
Grasslands Water
Shelter: Lean-to's, barn, or blankets
Hay or irrigated pasture Modern Environment Rainforest
Foliage as food source Steppe
Grass http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/17/Naadam_rider_2.jpg/220px-Naadam_rider_2.jpg http://landbiomes.wikispaces.com/file/view/mist_anbeech_large.JPG/106510527/749x493/mist_anbeech_large.JPG http://static4.depositphotos.com/1002040/361/i/950/depositphotos_3613164-Horse-grazing-on-the-meadow.jpg http://www.successful-horse-training-and-care.com/images/Horse-Blanket.jpg The prehistoric horse had 5 toes for navigating the forest. Speed was selected for survival over time because the grasslands had no protection against predators. The third toe remained and the other 4 no longer serve purposes of supporting the leg. This adaptation is an example of directional selection because of a gradual shift in fewer quine toes. Length of leg and overall size increase http://www.horse-riding-tips-n-chat.com/images/Eohippus.jpg http://www.localriding.com/image-files/thoroughbred-horse-4.jpg To adapt to running longer distances the equine developed longer legs and increased it's size. The prehistoric equine at top has the height of a fox, at about 20 cm. The modern horse below has a height of 162 cm, several times it's ancestors height. Molar Shape Prehistoric horse had 44 low crowned teeth, designed for omnivorous grazing. Modern horse has more pronounced crowns that are ideal for grinding rough forage. http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-yT8OvOUJOa8/UEJwKGocR7I/AAAAAAAAEik/zy6vPi7I-Fw/s1600/TwoHorses.jpg While the exact coloring of a prehistoric horse is unknown, it it most likely mottled like a fawn to bland with a jungle environment. The modern horse has adapted to blend with it's environment. This is visible in the predominant horse colors that have been selected for. Chestnut, black and bay horses are the most common in the wild. Human selection in domesticated horses have developed colors that would be selected against in the wild like tobiano or overo horses http://www.webanswers.com/post-images/E/E0/F3F9AF9E-6E40-437F-99B11C96A2CB14DB.jpg Classification Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Cordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Perissodactyla

Family: Equidae

Species: Equus caballus Gene Pools The modern horse has a wide variety of phenotypes. Hundreds of years of selection by the human hand has produced horses for different purposes. http://www.probioticsmart.com/media//blog/bigstock-Horse-Hoof--Hooves-10135115.jpg http://www.mainriver.com/Blueduck2.JPG http://featheredfriendshorsesociety.webs.com/ardennes01%5B1%5D.jpg http://www.normileracing.co.uk/racehorsetrainers/images/toad1.jpg http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3607/3623180076_a095bc128f.jpg http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_Jm8EtdEOZo8/TCGwt0GsuOI/AAAAAAAAAU8/rrwSl0bbRk8/s1600/DSC_0493.JPG Genetic Variation Reproduction Inheritance Speciation Climate changes pressure the horse to adapt to running and eating grass. This selected for traits like long legs, pronouced molars and 1 toe. The reproduction of the horse allowed for genetic mutation and drift to occur over time. The inherited traits from ancestors increased or decreased the likelihood of that individual's survival. The variation in equine branches increases the chance of successful descendants of prehistoric ancestors. The evolution of the horse was both gradual and punctuated equilibrium Most environmental changes were not abrupt, but some were dramatic enough to bring on sudden changes. Many branches of equine were developed and few contributed to the modern horse because of extinction. Shared Traits:
Molars used for grinding
Continually rupturing teeth
Similarly placed spine and neck
Middle toe present in older species of horse
Mane and tail
Long face Credits Help from mom (horse vet) "Domestication of the Horse." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 26 Feb. 2013. Web. 07 Mar. 2013.
"Evolution of the Horse." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 24 Feb. 2013. Web. 07 Mar. 2013.
Lindsay, Don. "The Evolution of the Horse's Foot." Horse Evolution Over 55 Million Years. Florida Museum of Natural History, n.d. Web. 07 Mar. 2013.
Perry, Wynne. "From the Horse's Mouth: Teeth Reveal Evolution." LiveScience.com. LiveScience, 03 Mar. 2011. Web. 07 Mar. 2013.
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