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Painless Grammar for Language Arts 8
Transcript of Painless Grammar for Language Arts 8
particular person, place, thing, or idea
names a thing that can be seen, touched, heard, smelled, or tasted
names an idea, feeling, quality, or characteristic
names a group of people or things
KINDS OF NOUNS
1. Among the largest living things on our planet are sequoias.
2. They are named for Sequoya, a Cherokee scholar and leader.
3. The most impressive example is the General Sherman Tree.
4. It bears the name of a Northern commander of the Civil War.
5. This sequoia weighs 12 million pounds and soars 275 feet, a symbol of strength and endurance.
Write the nouns in these sentences, identifying each as common or proper. Then identify the two collective nouns and two abstract nouns.
6. The size of its trunk, as wide as a highway with three lanes, comes as a great surprise to many people.
7. A team of researchers estimated its age as between 2,200 and 2,500 years.
8. In past centuries sequoias grew across the Northern Hemisphere.
9. Now they are found chiefly in national reserves in California.
10. The beauty of these trees amazes crowds every day.
names more than one person, place, thing, or idea
1. Add -s to most nouns
statue ------ statues
dream ------ dreams
2. Add -es to nouns that end in s, sh, ch, x, or z
wish ------ wishes
sandwich ------ sandwiches
3. Add -s to most nouns that end in o
photo ------ photos
Add -es to a few nouns that end in o
hero ------ heroes
4. For most nouns ending in y, change the y to an i and add -es
city ------ cities
But when a vowel comes before the y, just add -s
valley ------ valleys
5. For most nouns ending in f or fe, change the f to v and add -es or -s
wolf ------ wolves
life ------ lives
Just add -s to a few nouns that end in f or fe
chief ------ chiefs
6. For some nouns, keep the same spelling!
deer ------ deer
buffalo ------ buffalo
SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS
1. When the Statue of Liberty was almost a century old, (engineer) began to worry about her.
2. The copper (covering) had worn down, and (piece) of the torch were falling.
3. Photos showed that the head was 24 (inch) out of line.
4. This caused one of the (ray) in the crown to rub against the copper cover of the right arm.
5. Money for repairs came from (corporation), (individual), and (schoolchild).
Write the plural forms of the nouns in parentheses.
6. A major job was repairing the arm and the torch, which had endured many (stress) over the (year).
7. Thin (leaf) of gold were applied to the torch's "flame" so that it would reflect the sun.
8. In addition to the anniversary celebration in New York, many (community) around the country held their own (celebration).
9. On July 3, 1986, (speech), (concert), and (party) were held.
10. Lady Liberty began her second century on July 4, 1986, with many (festivity) and fireworks (display).
shows ownership or relationship
1. singular: add an apostrophe and -s
sun ------ The sun's heat
Charles ------ Charles's souvenirs
2. Plural ending in -s: add an apostrophe
states ------ states' borders
farmers ------ farmers' crops
3. Plural not ending in -s: add an apostrophe and -s
children ------ children's toys
geese ------ geese's migration
1. In (Missouri) southwestern corner stands a modest frame home.
2. The (farmhouse) appearance is like that of many others.
3. Visitors may not recognize one of our (country) monuments.
4. Yet, within its walls lived one of (history) finest agricultural scientists, George Washington Carver.
5. As a young boy he survived most (children) worst nightmare, the loss of both parents.
Write the possessive form of each noun in parentheses. Then label each possessive form as singular or plural.
6. (Neighbors) actions helped him to overcome his greatest difficulties.
7. At the monument, children can walk through the (area) many woods and fields.
8. Here (Carver) own interest in plants and agriculture began.
9. In time his work benefited many (farmers) lives.
10. The (home) simplicity reminds visitors of this great (person) humble background.
Made of two or more words used together as a single noun.
1. Can be one word:
2. Two or more words:
3. Hyphenated word:
1. The plains produce foodstuffs such as corn, wheat, and rye.
2. The cornstalks stand tall in South Dakota, a state that loves corn.
3. The Corn Palace is a famous building in Mitchell, a prairie town that welcomes cornhuskers.
4. Today it is called the agricultural show place of the world.
5. Each spring, the outside of the concrete building is covered with wall designs made of sweet corn, grains, and grasses.
Write each compound noun in the sentences below, indicating whether it is singular or plural.
6. Corn is so popular in Mitchell that the local radio station uses the call letters KORN.
7. Sportswriters cover the local high school's teams, which are named the Kernels.
8. Corn Palace Week celebrates harvest home, the end of the harvest, with themes such as "South Dakota birds."
9. The state produces other products: livestock are fattened in feedlots in eastern South Dakota.
10. Even though meatpacking is a major industry in Sioux Falls, corncribs throughout the state remind visitors that corn is king.
A word used in place of a noun or another pronoun.
Refers to a person, place, thing, or idea.
The word that a pronoun refers to is called an antecedent.
WHAT IS A PRONOUN?
List the personal pronoun(s) in each sentence.
1. Hannah Nyala is known for her tracking expertise.
2. She has found many lost hikers before they got into real trouble.
3. She wrote a book called Point Last Seen.
4. She learned some of her skills in the Mojave and Kalahari deserts.
5. Other experts remind us to plan ahead for danger.
6. To them, a first-aid kit is a necessity.
7. They advise us to find out before we go whether the water is safe to drink.
8. We are also advised to conserve our energy.
9. We are told to find shelter and avoid becoming too hot or too cold.
10. They say that all hikers should carry plenty of water with them.
2. Possessive Pronouns
Used to show ownership
Comes before a noun
her, hers, his, its
They NEVER have an apostrophe.
USING POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
1. Has (your, you're) pet ever saved a life?
2. David and Marjorie Giles can say yes; a woman survived an accident because of (their, they're) cat.
3. One morning in Dobbins, California, Bustopher was in (its, it's) yard.
4. Birds were calling, but amidst (their, they're) songs David Giles heard a peculiar noise.
5. Then he noticed Bustopher; (its, it's) front paw was pointing.
6. There is a steep drop-off to a canyon beyond the Gileses' lawn; (its, it's) not far away.
7. When Giles walked over to the drop-off, he heard the noise again; (its, it's) source was in the canyon.
8. He looked and saw (they're, their) neighbor, an 84-year-old woman who had fallen and broken her hip.
9. "(Your, You're) going to be all right," Giles assured her.
10. (Its, It's) amazing how animals can help people to survive.
Write the correct pronoun or contraction for each sentence.
with their antecedents.
1. Singular pronoun must have a singular antecedent.
2. Plural pronoun must have a plural antecedent.
3. The pronoun must agree in person with the antecedent.
4. The gender of a pronoun must be the same as the gender of the antecedent.
, in all
forms, is alive and well.
keep cattle on
tell the myths of
like to listen to
students at Hopi High.
1. Native Cultures have faced great threats to their survival.
2. For years, Native Americans were pushed to adopt a white, industrial way of life. They have had to fight to hold onto their own cultural and spiritual traditions.
3. Rose Robinson was a member of the Hopi tribe. She founded the Native American Journalists' Association.
4. Robinson monitored and resisted nuclear-waste dumping in her tribal lands.
5. Raymond Cross is a lawyer for the Mandan, Arikara, and Hidatsa nations. He sued the government for flodding tribal land with a dam. He won $150 million for the tribes.
Write the pronouns and their antecedents from these sentences.
6. Other tribes have gone to court to get back the rights to their land, minerals, and other valuable resources.
7. Native languages are another important issue; speaking them helps people keep their heritages alive.
8. Each person follows his or her own spiritual path based on respect for nature.
9. Native arts and crafts continue to celebrate both function and beauty; they also earn income.
10. Self-determination is the right of a group to make decisions about its future. It is becoming a reality for Native American nations.
a word used to express an action, a condition, or a state of being
1. Action Verb
2. Linking Verb
tells what the subject does
The roller coaster climbs up a hill.
Then the coaster plunges straight down.
Some people hate amusement parks.
Others enjoy them.
links a subject to a descriptor word
3. Helping Verb
helps the main verb express the meaning
Many people will ride the Cyclone this weekend.
They must want some thrills in their lives.
Rich Rodriquez has no fear of roller coasters.
He has set a world roller coaster record.
be, am, is, are, was, were, been, being
do, does, did
have, has, had
could, should, would
may, might, must
can, shall, will
WHAT IS A VERB?
Write the verb or verb phrase in each of the following sentences.
1. Rich Rodriguez has ridden a roller coaster longer than anyone else in the world.
2. He set the record on the Big Dipper in Blackpool, England.
3. His record is 1,013.5 hours over 47 days.
4. Guidelines allow a rider two hours a day off a coaster.
5. Rodriguez slept on the roller coaster.
6. By the end, Rodriguez had traveled 11,362 miles.
7. The wind rubbed his face raw.
8. The Big Dipper is a complete-circuit roller coaster.
9. It travels about 65 miles per hour.
10. But Rodriguez class the Cyclone his favorite.
Verbs and Objects
1. Direct Object
Names the receiver of a verb's action. Answers the question verb what? or verb whom?
2. Indirect Object
Tells to what or whom or for what or whom an action is done.
Evel Knievel gained much fame.
He performed dangerous stunts on a motorcycle.
Knievel gave his fans a thrill.
Knievel taught his son some stunts.
gave to whom?
3. Transitive Verb
4. Intransitive Verb
has a direct object
does not have a direct object
Knievel cleared nineteen cars in one stunt.
His motorcycle sailed through the air.
ACTION VERBS AND OBJECTS
1. In 1974, Evel Knievel staged the most famous feat of his career.
2. He chose the Snake River Canyon in Idaho.
3. He bought himself a steam-powered vehicle.
4. Knievel's promoter publicized the danger of the jump.
5. Fans wished Knievel good luck.
6. TV cameras showed viewers the quarter-mile-wide chasm.
7. The launch gave spectators a fright.
8. A parachute opened its canopy early.
9. The vehicle hit the floor of the canyon.
10. The failure gave the famous daredevil no desire for another try at the canyon.
Write the 15 complements in these sentences, identifying each as a direct object or an indirect object.
shows that an action or condition occurs now
shows that an action or condition was completed in the past
shows that an action or condition will occur in the future
expresses an action or condition that is in progress
The hatch of the lunar module
Tranquillity Base 30 minutes ago.
Soon the occupants
on the moon.
You are operating a virtual-reality model of the Apollo-11 mission.
You were blasting off before.
You will be sharing the game with a friend.
the first moon landing like?
2. A virtual-reality game
3. Inside the lunar module Eagle, you
for a plain called the Sea of Tranquility.
4. A computer
5. Mission Control
out of fuel in the search for a good landing spot.
only thirty seconds left.
8. But you
without a bump.
9. Before the real take-off, Neil Armstrong
the mission's likelihood of success.
the odds at 50-50.
Identify each highlighted verb as present, past, future, present progressive, past progressive, or future progressive.
a word that modifies or describes a noun or pronoun
weather can cause
During a storm, a boat capsized in the waves.
boat capsized in the
WHAT IS AN ADJECTIVE?
1. Scientists are amazed by the terrific power of a tornado.
2. The circular winds in strong tornadoes cause more damage than winds in other storms of a similar size.
3. Large hailstones often accompany a typical tornado.
4. One hailstone weighed two pounds, or about one kilogram.
5. It fell in the small Kansan town of Coffeyville.
6. A Chinese newspaper reported a rain of monstrous hailstones that killed a hundred people.
7. Tornadoes can drive large pieces of timber into thick walls.
8. A tornado hit the Midwestern town of Coralville.
9. The winds carried a heavy mechanical part a long way through the air.
10. Another tornado in 1875 carried a metal coop four miles.
Write each adjective along with the noun or pronoun it modifies.
modifies verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs
make a unique impression.
have their own way of talking.
Adverbs answer the questions how, when, where, or to what extent?
WHAT IS AN ADVERB?
1. Alison and James Henry climb trees professionally.
2. To some people, this seems quite extraordinary.
3. This is because Alison and James are unusually young for such a job.
4. They became professionals when they were only 17 and 16.
5. They are certified arborists, and they care for trees expertly.
Write each adverb and the word it modifies. Identify the modified word as a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.
6. They may ascend trees daily if their services are needed.
7. The two teenagers climb high in order to cut branches that might suddenly fall on a house or wire.
8. They work very carefully when they are up in the tops of trees.
9. They were once called in the middle of the night to remove a tree that had fallen dangerously close to a house.
10. So far, Alison and James are the only teenagers to have this particularly impressive professional title.
ADJECTIVE OR ADVERB?
For each sentence, choose the correct modifier from those given in parentheses. Identify each word you choose as an adjective or adverb.
1. If you are (good/well) at something, you can try to get into the Guinness Book of Records.
2. You may climb (bad/badly) or be a (real/really) poor runner.
3. But maybe you grow vegetables or flowers that are large and make a (real/really) statement.
4. Or maybe you blow big bubble-gum bubbles (good/well).
5. It helps if you attempt a (real/really) feat in public.
6. At least you must have (good/well) documentation by a person with (real/really) excellent community standing.
7. If it's just you and the huge bubble, that's (bad/badly).
8. The Guinness people will react (bad/badly) to your claim.
9. Those same folks also suggest that you take (good/well) safety precautions when you try to set a record.
10. After all, you don't want to get your award while lying in a hospital bed, feeling (bad/badly).