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Copy of Unit 1: Introduction to Psychology
Transcript of Copy of Unit 1: Introduction to Psychology
QUESTION Form a
HYPOTHESIS Put it to the TEST! ANALYZE the DATA Come to a CONCLUSION Naturalistic Observation Case Studies Longitudinal Studies Cross-Sectional Studies Surveys Experiments ? So how do we do that? Alfred Kinsey and the Kinsey reports An extensive and indepth look at a single individual Phineas Gage Jane Goodall Observing an individual or group in their natural habitat, typically with as little interference as possible
a.k.a. the "fly on the wall" technique Follows a (usually large) group of people over a long period of time The Wisconsin Longitudinal Survey Tests groups of people from different groups (usually ages) Ask a series of questions to a number of people (depends on the type of survey) Test the subjects in a controlled environment, where you can manipulate the situation and observe the results The Kinsey Scale A question framed as a scientifically testable statement All other research methods merely collect data, whereas experiments essentially create data Experimental Design Ask a
QUESTION Form a
HYPOTHESIS 1) 2) 3) Determine the Variables Independent Variable Dependent Variable The variable being directly manipulated by the experimenter The variable that changes as a result of the change in independent variable 4) Procedure What do the subjects have to do in the experiment? Usually there are two groups within the experiment as well Control Group Experiment Group These people are subjected to the independent variable These people are NOT subjected to the independent variable ANALYZE the DATA Come to a CONCLUSION 5) 6) Note: A good hypothesis will contain both the independent and dependent variables Most important things to know in experimental design:
Independent and dependent variables Participant welfare outweighs potential gain Do no harm! Be open about your intentions You should always be allowed to... Confidentiality no matter what knowledge may be gained you have to put the subjects first. If harm is unwittingly done, fix it. You should tell the subject everything you can about the experiment unless this knowledge will interfere with their actions Whatever is learned about any of the subjects should be kept confidential. This is usually done by changing names in any publications of the study. if the subject expresses discomfort, or simply wants to stop, they should be allowed to, even at the cost of a good trial through the study. Little Albert What's unethical about the study Watson did on Little Albert? Which is the experimental group? Control group? Measures of Central Tendency Mean: the average Median: the middle score Mode: the most frequent number Sum of all values in a data set total number of values in the data set 1, 9, 11, 14, 18, 21, 29, 38, 40 Median=18 3, 4, 26, 40, 45, 49, 51, 52, 57, 64 If the data set has an even number of values, find the average of the middle two Median=(45+49)/2=47 Correlations Positive Correlation Negative Correlation No Correlation "Correlation does not equal causation" # hours spent studying Test Scores Test Scores # of hours spent watching TV Does ice cream make you kill people?!?! NO!
(I Hope) There's a third variable involved... A B A causes/effects B A B B causes/effects A C A B C causes/effects A and B the summer heat A method of comparing two sets of data Both sets increase together As one set increases, the other decreases No clear relationship Single Blind Experiments Biases Placebo effect Self-fulfilling prophecy Sow how do we avoid these? A placebo is something that looks like a real drug/treatment, but in fact does nothing at all. The placebo effect takes place when a person unknowingly gets a placebo, which does nothing, but their belief in the treatment actually makes them feel better Situation in which a person's expectations influence that person's own behavior, and so influence the behavior of others Double Blind Experiments experiment where the subject does not know the purpose or details of the study, but the experimenter does experiment where neither the subject nor the experimenter knows the purpose or details of the experiment. The only one who knows is the experiment organizer. Not knowing what the experiment is looking at removes any potential biases from the experiment