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Birth, Infancy, and Toddlerhood Development
Transcript of Birth, Infancy, and Toddlerhood Development
Martorell, G., Papalia, D. E., & Feldman, R. D. (2014).
A Child's World Infancy Through Adolescence
(13th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
My Cognitive Development (at Birth)
When I was a baby, I absolutely loved my
pacifier (which I called my 'pippi')!
One day at a very solemn church, I sneezed
and spit it out--it ricocheted off the pew and I
started yelling, "Pippi! Pippi!" My parents were
hysterical, but the rest of the people there were
not so amused.
This story illustrates that I was in Freud's oral psychosexual stage. According to Martorell, Papalia, and Feldman (2014) a "baby's chief source
of pleasure involves mouth-oriented activities
(sucking and feeding)."
My Pyschosocial Development (at Birth)
When I was a baby, I loved to be held all the time!
As a result, I developed a very strong bond with
This illustrates the concept of imprinting. Imprinting
may be thought of as an "instinctive form of learning
in which, during a critical period in early development, a young animal forms an attachment
to the first moving object it sees, usually the mother" (Martorell et al., 2014, page 17).
My Physical Development (at Birth)
When I was a baby, to the dismay of my family,
I had frequent bouts of colic. This definitely made
life rough for the first few weeks!
Colic may be defined as "uncontrollable, extended crying for no apparent reason"
(Martorell et al., 2014, page 104).
My Cognitive Development (Infancy)
I was a very willful (maybe even a stubborn) child. I kept standing up in my high chair and my parents
tried hard to make me sit down again. I was very determined to practice my standing skills!
This was a great example of Erikson's psychosocial
stage of 'autonomy versus shame and doubt.' This is when the "child develops a balance of independence and self-sufficiency over shame and doubt" (Martorell et al., 2014, page 30).
My Psychosocial Development (Infancy)
I was pretty close to my parents, apparently even in infancy. When I was about eight months old, my parents left me with a friend while they went Christmas shopping for my sister and myself. When they returned, I went crawling over to them as quickly as I could! I was sad when my parents left--and very excited when they were back.
This is an example of separation anxiety, which may be defined as "distress shown by someone, typically an infant, when a familiar caregiver leaves" (Martorell et al, 2014, page 232).
My Physical Development (Infancy)
I started sitting up, a gross motor skill, when I was only five months old. In fact, I performed most gross motor skills early. My pediatrician told my mom that it was because I was so determined!
Sitting up uses large muscle groups, so is considered a gross motor skill. Martorell et al (2014) define gross motor skills as "physical skills that involve the large muscles."
My Cognitive Development (Toddlerhood)
I loved my sister, Rebecca. However, my first sentence (said to my mom) was, "Becca's bugging me!"
This is an example of telegraphic speech, which is an "early form of sentence use consisting of only a few essential words" (Martorell, 2014, page 206).
My Psychosocial Development (Toddlerhood)
My personality has been very consistent throughout my life. My family, friends of my parents, and even my pediatrician all noticed my determination. I still have this aspect of my personality today as I focus on my college courses and don't let anything deter me from my goals.
This lines up with the definition of personality, which can be thought of as "the relatively consistent blend of emotions, temperament, thought, and behavior what makes each person unique" (Martorell et al., 2014, page 218).
My Physical Development (Toddlerhood)
Although I'm definitely not an artist, I started to draw with crayons in toddlerhood. My favorite thing to color was horses.
This is an example of fine motor skills, which can be defined as "physical skills that involve the small muscles and eye-hand coordination" (Martorell et al., 2014, page 161).