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Elizabeth Miller

on 23 February 2014

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Transcript of Behaviorism

What is
Token Economy
Token economy
programs "involve the distribution of physical tokens (for example, poker chips, stickers, stars, smiley faces, etc.) or points following appropriate behavior. The tokens or points can be accumulated throughout the day and exchanged for designated rewards at a specified time. A predetermined goal is set for the number of tokens or points required to earn a reward. The teacher or classroom aide is responsible for distributing the tokens and providing the reward."(Girodm, M. 2010).
Where does
Token Economy
fit in Behaviorism?
Token economy
is a behavioral strategy that relies on reinforcement to modify behavior.

So what does that mean?
Benefits to Echo Reading
"Echo reading in small or large group improves fluency." (Beers, 2003)

"Echo reading allows students to practice small chunks of text so they can become fluent without the pressure of reading an entire passage. This strategy can be conducted with individuals, small groups, or the entire class." (Adkins, E. K. & Dobberteen, K. W. 2008)
What is Echo Reading?
Echo reading is a variation of repeated reading, where "
the student reads after the teacher, repeating what the teacher read
." (Graves, M. F., Juel, C., Graves, B. B., & Dewitz, P.228, 2011)
Classroom Management
Token Academy
: a
Research Based Strategies on
Classroom Management

What does
Token Economy
Look Like?
Why this strategy Matters to Behaviorists?
Echo Reading
Echo Reading
Echo Reading
Where does this fit in Behaviorism?
What does this strategy look like?
In the classroom:
believe that learning occurs when there is a positive or negative stimulus influencing the behavior at hand. For example, if you are trying to teach a child to read quietly, you would give positive attention to the students reading quietly. The positive attention would be linked to reading quietly and the child will continue to do so. (McLeod, S. A. 2007, Behaviorist Approach).
Token economy
uses this approach in the classroom by rewarding the child with a token when they see positive behavior. (McLeod, S. A. (2007). Skinner - Operant Conditioning.)
McLeod, S. A. (2007). Skinner - Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html

Girodm, M. (2010). Classroom interventions for children with attention deficit disorder: classroom token economy [PDF file] Western Oregon University. Retrieved from http://www.wou.edu/~girodm/middle/classroom_token_economy.pdf

“The central idea in behaviorism can be stated simply: A science of behavior is possible.” (Baum, 2004, p. 3).
By Betsy Miller
This is a clip from a tv show called
The Big Bang Theory
. Here they show that learning can take place the Behaviorist way using operant conditioning.
token economy
is a behavioral strategy that allows children to earn tokens for positive
behaviors." (Gruber, 2011). This strategy is in the heart and soul of behaviorism. Your environment shapes your learning, and your behavior can be modified through conditioning. Token economy is a form of conditioning.

1. Identify the behavior you want to modify (target behavior).
2. Determine what will be the motivation for the student if behavior is being met by conducting a survey.
3. Create back-up reinforcers in case the reinforcers get boring, not only tangible but things that will be fun for the child to experience.
4. Determine how many tokens are used to achieve the end goal.
5. Create age appropriate tokens, like stickers, pennys, check marks etc.
6. Pair social praise and token in the beginning stages so that the student can identify the positive behaviors.
7. Include the staff in the school to give out tokens.
8. Let the student chose from the menu at times, and make sure they are rewarded immediately.

Stainbrook, A., Blumberg, S. & Juarez, P. (2014)
Photo from: Stainbrook, A., Blumberg, S. & Juarez, P. (2014)
Add or take away the amounts of tokens to achieve reinforcer.
Add pictures or symbols for non readers.
Token Economy
can be differentiated in many ways.

Two quick ways are...
Token Economies
can get expensive.
You have to be consistent and frequent.
You may lose that intrinsic motivation to do well for materialistic things and rewards.
There is an instant reward or consequence for positive and negative behavior.
They provide a visual and a goal for the child to focus on and monitor their own behavior.
It provides a structure and consistency for the child, so they feel like the teacher is being fair.
Goals and expectations are clear and communicated with the student.
Definition found: http://learningdisabilities.about.com/od/glossar1/g/rdgfluency.htm
Boston: Pearson.
In echo reading, "requires only that students
(echo) the teachers reading of a segment of text." (Lipson, M. Y. & Wixson, K. K. 2009)

"Behaviorism theory is described as teacher centered because it focuses on the teacher's active role as a dispenser of knowledge."
(Tompkins, G. E. 2014). This strategy is totally teacher run, with the teacher reading and the student echoing.
In this video, the teacher is reading, the student is echoing, and after the student reads the page correctly the teacher says some sort of verbal positive reinforcement. The teacher is coaching the student throughout the echo reading lesson.
First Step
Make photocopies of the echo reading passage (or have an extra copy of the book.) One for each student and one for the teacher.
2nd Step
Teacher reads the first line out loud.
3rd Step
Tell students to repeat what you read modeling how the teacher read it.
4th Step
Continue this procedure throughout the entire passage.
5th Step
Gradually increase the
amount of words students
will echo.

6th Step
Gradually increase the
speed as you read pushing
students to read more
The steps were found: Adkins, E. K. & Dobberteen, K. W. (2008)
Photo credit: Adkins, E. K. & Dobberteen, K. W. (2008)

This strategy is
great for ELL's and
struggling readers.

In order to
differentiate, the
teacher can start
with a smaller
amount of words,
easier texts, and
as the reader
increase the
difficulty in text,
speed, and increase
the amount of words
read on

Helps readers read at the appropriate speed and accuracy which is better for comprehension.
Helps take the pressure off of reading out loud.
Helps readers recognize new words easier.
Can be very time consuming since it must be done with another adult.
This type of strategy does not help students use word solving strategies to figure out tricky words on their own.
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