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Design Process Research Phase

A collection of Methods
by

Sandra Lin

on 18 August 2013

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Transcript of Design Process Research Phase

step by step
Design Thinking
Aware & Prepare
1. To make people realize the possibility of using design thinking as a approach method. ~ Sandra
Possible Methods
Define Topic
To build constraints and frameworks for a project (Change by Design, Tim Brown)
Methods
Ayse Birsel of Herman Miller: http://playgallery.org/stories/birsel/
“De/Re is really about deconstructing something, breaking it into its components. And in doing so, you break the links that are between things and break the preconceptions…. Deconstruction helps us break that reality so that we can create our own new reality.”
“Once you've broken something into its components, you have a sense of, well, are these really the pieces that I want in here? Am I missing something?”
“The second piece of it is shifting your point of view. Because if you can see something from a different perspective, you can start to think about things differently. And that’s the seat of creativity.”
“Can we turn a constraint into an opportunity? Can we change the hierarchy of things?”
“Once you break it down, then the reconstruction part is the other side. It's thinking about, well, what do I want in my new equation, in my new idea? What’s at the center of my idea, at the center of our investment?"
Notes from Tim Brown of IDEO
Design thinking Design thinking can be described as a discipline that uses the designer’s sensibility and methods to match people’s needs with what is technologically feasible and what a viable business strategy can convert into customer value and market opportunity.“….design thinking converts need into demand”On the other hand I think one of the biggest obstacles to using design thinking as an effective problem solving approach is anticipating what it feels like.

http://designthinking.ideo.com/
The Laws of Simplicity - By John Maeda (NOTES)
Law 1: Reduce - The simplest way to achieve simplicity is through thoughtful reduction. Lessen what you can, small is better.
Law 2: Organize - Organization makes a system of many appear fewer. Humans group and categorize naturally. We follow Gestalt Principles (pattern-forming). Squinting helps open your eyes, by seeing less, you see more.
Law 3: Time - Savings in time feel like simplicity. Efficiency in speed adds positivity to an experience.
Law 4: Learn - Knowledge makes everything simpler. In order to teach, must assume the stance of a first-time learner. BRAIN= Basics are the beginning, Repeat yourself often, Avoid creating desperation, Inspire with example, Never forget to repeat yourself. These tips help Relate, Translate, and Surprise (delightfully) the user, which will have the most affect in design.
Law 5: Differences - Simplicity and complexity need each other. Notice the beat of complexity and simplicity in every experience.
Law 6: Context - What lies in the periphery of simplicity is definitely not peripheral. Empty space leaves room to fill with thoughts and other opportunities. The total sum of all the small details in an experience add up to what is special about it.
Law 7: Emotion - More emotions are better than less. Some people find simplicity unattractive, self-expression is embedded in human nature. Expressing emotion is a desirable human trait. More love, more care, andmore meanings actions is always a better thing.
Law 8: Trust - In simplicity we trust
Law 9: Failure - Some things can never be made simple. Even if it will fail, there is no harm in initiating a quest for simplicity.
Law 10: The One - Simplicity is about subtracting the obvious, and adding the meaningful.
2. To have people feel comfortable about using design thinking as a way to approach problems. ~Sandra
1. To be in the mindset of how there’s no such thing as the “one best way” to approach the process. (Change by Design, Tim Brown)
1. Guided Workshop
2. Stories

61. Participatory Design
Participatory design is a human-centered approach advocating active user and stakeholder engagement throughout all phases of the research and design process, including co-design activities.

80. Stakeholder Maps (UMoD)Stakeholder maps help to visually consolidate and communicate the key constituents of a design project, setting the stage for user-centered research and design development.
the 5 “Why”s, Repeatedly asking oneself why the problem statement is worth putting more effort into it. (Mike Roller - ID studio SU2012)
User Research
Methods
Analyze & Synthesize
Methods
Ideation
Methods
Refinement & Validation
Methods
Execute/Implementation
Methods
Feedback/Manage & Reflect
2. Sketches
1. Paper Mockups
3. Mind Maps
Trends and mood boards from web references: http://awoltrends.com/ or http://www.wgsn.com/
Blogs or tumblrs can help be used as inspiration http://lemanoosh.tumblr.com/
Quantitative
Qualitative
UC ID PortfolioHandbook
Understand exactly what the project will be working on
continue maintaining the project while obtaining feedback from users and adjusting project to new insights
Methods
Goals:
-Being able to get accurate feedback from users or other professionals. ~Sandra

-Being able to keep track of the project and make sure the project would be able to be a sustainable one. ~Sandra
1. A/B testing: (UMoD)
Compare two different versions of the same design to see which one will do better in the market.
Understanding the users more and being able to gain insights from there. So that the project is executed for the users in the end, not for the designer.
Goals:

1. Being able to determine who and what to research.
2. Being able to plan a research.
3. Being able to do it in the most effective way.
1. AEIOU (UMoD)
Activity, Environment, Interaction, Objects, and Users. A way to organize findings.

2. Affinity Diagramming (UMoD)
So called bucketing. Affinity diagramming is a process used to externalize and meaningfully cluster observations and insights from research, keeping design teams grounded in data as they design.

3. Content Analysis (UMoD)
There's two ways to do content analysis. Inductive and Deductive. Inductive content analysis is looking for patterns within the research data and then categorizing the, and with deductive content analysis you categorize information with pre-determined categories.

4. The Elito Method
Can someone read this in the book and explain what it is? I've been trying to figure this out but I can't.

49. KJ Technique (UMoD)
Where teams address concerns to reach a consensus in silence using sticky notes.

50. Personas (UMoD)
Personas consolidate archetypal descriptions of user behavior patterns into representative profles, to humanize design focus, test scenarios, and aid design communication.

78. Site Search Analytics (UMoD)Analyzing the words and phrases entered into a site search gives organizations insight into what people are looking for, which is an opportunity to evaluate how well site content meets those needs.

81. Stakeholder Walkthrough (UMoD)
Stakeholder walkthroughs bring end users, stakeholders, and the design team together to evaluate early prototypes, providing actionable recommendations for improvements and building empathy.

82. Storyboards (UMoD)Storyboards provide a visual narrative that generates empathy and
communicates the context in which a technology or form factor will be used.

86. Thematic Networks (UMoD)Building a thematic network is a step-by-step process that helps to identify, organize, and connect the most common themes in rich, qualitative data.
1. Brainstorm Graphic Organizers (UMoD)
Organizing thoughts (post it notes) by making 1)web maps 2)tree diagrams 3)flow charts

2. Cognitive Walkthrough (UMoD)
Have people walk through your design and observe them.

3. Customer experience Audit (UMoD)
categorize user's experiences into steps and then analyze user's experience with user's values, intention, emotions, etc. in mind.

4. Desirability Testing
When there is disagreement about which design direction to pursue, desirability testing shifts the conversation from which design is “best” to which design elicits the optimal emotional response from users.

34. Evaluative Research (UMoD)
Evaluative research involves the testing of prototypes, products, or
interfaces by real potential users of a system in design development.

35. Evidence-based Design (UMoD)
Evidence-based Design is an approach that bases decisions for effective design on the implications of credible research and assessed outcomes, rather than sole reliance on intuition and anecdotal information.
Be aware and have an understanding of the design thinking process so the design thinking process can be implemented.
Stanford Design Process
Be able to turn all the research data into usable information and actionable design goals.
http://dschool.stanford.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/understand-mixtape-v8.pdf

Standfords Guide of how to set up a Design thinking research session. It begins with seting up the problem
Form a clearer idea of what the final project would be like.
Make the project a reality
Story Share (Standford Understanding Mixtape)
Capturing a moment of empathy during field work
Empathy Map (Stanford Understanding Mixtape)
SAY: What are some quotes and defining words your user said?
DO: What actions and behaviors did you notice?
THINK: What might your user be thinking? What does this tell you about his or her beliefs?
FEEL: What emotions might your subject be feeling?
http://dschool.stanford.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/crashcourseplaybookfinal3-1-120302015105-phpapp02.pdf
1. Competitive Testing (UMoD)
Competitive testing is the process of conducting research to evaluate the usability and learnability of your competitors’ products. In other terms, benchmarking.

2. Concept Mapping (UMoD)
A concept map is a sense-making tool that connects a large number of ideas, objects, and events as they relate to a certain domain.

3. Content Inventory (UMoD)
A content inventory is a quantitative exercise that aggregates all of your content assets, and is typically organized in a spreadsheet.

4. Critical Incidents (UMoD)
The goal is to generate representative scenarios that cover both the positive and negative critical incidents, so that you can understand how users experience your product at critical moments.

46. Heuristic Evaluation (UMoD)
An agreed-upon set of usability best practices can help detect usability problems before actual users are brought in to further evaluate an interface.

47. Image Boards (UMoD)
A collage of collected pictures, illustrations, or brand imagery can be used to visually communicate an essential description of targeted aesthetics, style, audience, context, or other aspects of design intent.

85. Territory Maps (UMoD)Territory maps are visual artifacts that represent the shared focus of the design team for anticipated design activities, including the identifcation of suggested stakeholders.1
http://dschool.stanford.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/experiment-mixtape-v8.pdf

Stanfords workshop pdf of prototyping
WHAT is ideating?
Ideate is the mode of your design process in which you aim to generate radical design alternatives. Mentally it represents a process of “going wide” in terms of concepts and outcomes—it is a mode of “flaring” rather than “focus.” The goal of ideation is to explore a wide solution space – both a large quantity of ideas and a diversity among those ideas. From this vast depository of ideas you can build prototypes to test with users. ~ Stanford
http://dschool.stanford.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/ideate-mixtape-v8.pdf
4. Bodystorming (UMoD)
Bodystorming situates brainstorming in physical experience, combining role-playing and simulation to inspire new ideas and empathic, spontaneous prototyping.

5. Business Origami (UMoD)
Basically a way to figure out the interaction and value exchange between stakeholders. More appropriate for service design.

6. design Charette
When superior design features and characteristics inspire subsequent rounds of ideas, the end result is more likely to be an optimized design solution.

7. Design Workshops
Effcient, compelling, fun ways to gain the creative trust and input of stakeholders through activity-based research.

36. Experience Prototyping (UMoD)
Experience prototyping facilitates active participation in design through subjective engagement with a prototype system or service, product, or place.1

41. Flexible Modeling (UMoD)
Given a component kit of parts, users can provide insight into product or interface confgurations as guiding information for designers.

56. Mind Mapping (UMoD)
When a topic or a problem has many moving parts, mind mapping provides a method of visually organizing a problem space in order to better understand it.

58. Parrallel Prototyping (UMoD)
Simultaneously exploring multiple design opportunities can help teams
keep from fxating on a design direction too early, improve the nature
of design critiques, and lead to more effective design results

66. Prototyping (UMoD)

68. Rapid Iterative Testing & Evaluation (RITE) (UMoD)RITE is a powerful formative usability inspection method that helps teams identify and remove major problems in an interface early in the design process before costly prototypes are built.














50. Kano Analysis (UMoD)
See image.


55. Mental Model Diagram
People tend to behave in ways consistent with dearly held beliefs. The mental model diagram can help you articulate root causes behind behaviors and develop solutions that deeply resonate with people.

57. Observation
Duh

59. Participant Observation (UMoD)
Participant observation is an immersive, ethnographic method for understanding situations and behaviors through the experience of membership participation in an activity, context, culture, or subculture.

60. Participatory Action Research (UMoD)
PAR is a cyclical, collaborative research process that seeks to intentionally change the community or other aspects that are the focus of the inquiry.

64. Photo Studies (UMoD)
Literally what you think it is. Also a photo journal and/or diary.

65. Picture Cards
Picture cards contain images and words that help people think about and tell true stories of their life experiences, grounded in context and detail.

71. Role-playing (UMoD) -- Also

77. Simulation Exercises
Acting the role of the user in realistic scenarios can forge a deep sense of empathy and highlight challenges, presenting opportunities that can be met by design.

74. Secondary Research (UMoD)
Secondary research consists of information collected and synthesized fromexisting data, rather than original material sourced through primary research with participants.
75. Semantic Differential (UMoD)Semantic differentials can help reveal “felt” meanings that are a direct product of one’s experiences, culture, and dearly held beliefs.

76. Shadowing (UMoD)Shadowing provides key insight into a participant’s activities and decision patterns as the researcher follows him or her closely throughout his or her daily routines.

78. Site Search Analytics (UMoD)
Analyzing the words and phrases entered into a site search gives organizations insight into what people are looking for, which is an opportunity to evaluate how well site content meets those needs.

83. Surveys (UMoD)
Surveys are a method of collecting self-reported information from people about their characteristics, thoughts, feelings, perceptions, behaviors, or attitudes.

84. Task Analysis (UMoD)
Task analysis breaks down the constituent elements of a user’s work flow, including actions and interactions, system response, and environmental context.

87. Think-aloud Protocol (UMoD)Think-aloud protocol is a method that requires participants to verbalize what they are doing and thinking as they complete a task, revealing aspects of an interface that delight, confuse, and frustrate.

88. Time-aware Research (UMoD)Intercepting people at the precise moment they choose to complete a task provides keen insight into how they accomplish self-directed goals.

89. Touchstone Tours (UMoD)The guided tour is designed as a conversation that uses artifacts and the environment as touchstones for questions and insights.

90. Triading (UMoD)
Triading is an interviewing technique that reveals deep-seated attitudes,
perceptions, and feelings toward brands, products, and services.
- build changes that last (Reboot.org)

-Repeat! "Design thinking describes a repeatable process employing unique and creative techniques which yield guaranteed results -- usually results that exceed initial expectations" -FastCo
http://www.fastcompany.com/919258/design-thinking-what

(deliverables listed on Reboot's website)
- Program management and implementation
- Technical product development
- Mobile systems
- Partner/Vendor Selection and Management
- Knowledge management platforms-
- Pilot Projects
- Outcomes
_
Business Model: (Business Model Generation)
A business model describes the rationale of how an organization creates, delivers, and capture value.
- organize information in a way that makes sense to researchers and users.

- Able to trace each finding back to original research.
- quantity, not quality
-
http://marshmallowchallenge.com/Welcome.html
very general
demographic specific
task specific
1. AEIOU (UMoD)
Activity, Environment, Interaction, Objects, and Users. A checklist for researchers while observing.

38. Experiments (UMoD)
Experiments measure the effect that an action has on a situation by demonstrating a causal relationship or determining conclusively that one thing is the result of another.

67. Questionnaires
Survey instruments designed for collecting self-report information from people about their characteristics, thoughts, feelings, perceptions, behaviors, or attitudes, typically in written form
2. Automated Remote Research (UMoD)
Automated remote research is a method that can reveal statistically relevant data about what people are doing on your website, to help identify the usability enhancements with the biggest impact.

40. EyeTracking (UMoD)
Eyetracking gathers detailed technical information on exactly where
and for how long participants are looking—and not looking—when using an interface or interacting with products.

51. Key Performance Indicators (UMoD)
When you need to keep a pulse on critical success factors for your
product or service, a few well-selected KPIs can keep you informed and guide you when you need to course-correct.
3. Crowdsourcing (UMoD)
Set up a call (for example, a website) and encourage people to respond to it with content. (IA Collaborative Example)
learning about the subject
learning about the users
user vs subject
1. Artifact Analysis (UMoD)
A systematic examination of the material, aesthetic, and interactive qualities of objects contributes to an understanding of their physical, social, and cultural contexts.


4 .Case Studies (UMoD)
The case study is a research strategy involving in-depth investigation of single events or instances in context, using multiple sources of research evidence. Researchers would be able to learn from other researcher's experiences.

53. Literature Reviews (UMoD)
Literature reviews are an integral part of academic papers, but are also a useful component of any design project, to collect and synthesize research on a given topic. Aka read books


3. Card Sorting (UMoD)
When user comprehension and meaningful categorization is critical, card sorting can help clarify. Design a set of cards and let users sort them. By observing users doing this, researchers are able to observe what is important and what makes sense for users.

5. Cognitive Mapping (UMoD)
Cognitive mapping is a visualization of how people make sense of a
particular problem space. It is most effective when used to structure
complex problems and to inform decision making.

6. Collage
As inspiration for design teams, collage allows participants to visually express their thoughts, feelings, desires, and other aspects of their life that are difficult to articulate using traditional means.

7. Contextual Inquiry
Researchers immerse themselves in the context, observe, ask questions, and learn.

8. Cultural Probes
Cultural probes consist of any number of materials designed to inspire people to thoughtfully consider personal context and circumstance, and respond to the design team in unique, creative ways facilitated by the provocations.

9. Design Ethnography
The study of people in their natural settings; a descriptive account of social life and culture
in a defined social system, based on qualitative methods (e.g., detailed observations, unstructured
interviews, analysis of documents).

11. Directed Story Telling
Collect stories from users by asking them pre-designed questions. Documentation is key for this method.

39. Exploratory Research (UMoD)
Kind of like a deep dive where you jump into the lives of the user. For instance going to work on a farm when you know you are designing for Farmers

42. Fly on the Wall (UMoD)
Fly-on-the-wall observation allows the researcher to unobtrusively gather information by looking and listening without direct participation or interference with the people or behaviors being observed.

44. Generative Research (UMoD)
Generative design exercises engage users in creative opportunities to express their feelings, dreams, needs, and desires, resulting in rich information for concept development.

48. (Interviews UMoD)
Interviews are a fundamental research method for direct contact with participants, to collect frsthand personal accounts of experience, opinions, attitudes, and perceptions.
2. Behavioral Mapping (UMoD)
Behavioral mapping is used to systematically document location-based observations of human activity, using annotated maps, plans, video, or time-lapse photography.

10. Diary Studies
A designed diary for users to keep track of their daily interaction with the product.

37. Experience Sampling Method (UMoD)
Experience sampling allows the designer to collect snapshots of behaviors, interactions, thoughts, or feelings from people who self-report in real time when signaled at random or timed intervals.

43, Focus Groups (UMoD)
The dynamic created by a small group of well-chosen people, when guided by a skilled moderator, can provide deep insight into themes, patterns, and trends.


45. Graffiti Walls (UMoD)
Graffti walls provide an open canvas on which participants can freely offer their written or visual comments about an environment or system, directly in the context of use.

69. Remote Moderated Research (UMoD)Remotely observing users completing tasks on their own electronic devices can reveal rich insights into contexts of use that cannot be replicated in a controlled lab environment.

54. Writing the product a love letter and a break up letter (UMoD)
Team Building
OpenIDEO
video at: http://www.openideo.com/open/business-impact-challenge/inspiration/using-dance-and-body-movement-for-leadership-and-communication-development/
Who is our Audience?
There could be different ways of approaching social innovations.

- local vs regional
- small group of people vs huge group of people
- other NPOs ?
- starting something from scratch / working something into a pre-exisiting system(?)
- etc.


There's also different kinds of social innovation I wonder if that matters.
- community building
- economy
- health
- education
- entrepreneurship (?)

community level leader.
(designers.)
Outcome / Platform Ideas
What could our platform be like?
Napkin Labs "app-store/library of tools"
http://www.fastcodesign.com/1664851/napkin-laps-tries-to-app-ify-design-thinking
Active Learning
http://cte.uwaterloo.ca/teaching_resources/tips/active_learning_activities.html
General Techniques: those that involve active thinking from the typical lecture format

1. Questions
2. Pros & Cons Lists
3. Brainstorming
4. Formative (ungraded) Quizes.
5. Think Pair Sharing
6. Short writing
7. Problem Solving: Proofs, Demonstrations & Stories
8. Modeling Analytical Skills
9. Debates
10. Roleplaying
http://www1.umn.edu/ohr/teachlearn/tutorials/active/strategies/index.html
Group Activities

Buzz/Brainstorm Sessions: A small group of students work within a determined time limit to answer a question or solve a problem and come to a conclusion.
Group Work Exercise: Students are given a problem or situation to solve in a 5 – 10 minute period of time. All directions and rules are printed in a visual and explained by the instructor.
Rank and Report: Given a series of items or issues, students rank the importance of the items or issues and report the results with a justification.
Problems: A group of students works on given problems within a specified time. The instructor discusses the correct answers at the end of the activity.
Complete Case Studies: These are real world descriptions of problems with all accompanying data. Groups are asked to resolve the problem within a given period of time. Each group makes recommendations while the instructor acts as moderator.
Diagnostic Sessions: Groups diagnose a problem, situation, process, etc.
Pyramiding (Snowball Groups): Given a problem, students first work alone, then in pairs, and finally in foursomes (maximum) and compare, refine, and revise their conclusions and recommendations.
Ugly presentation of Why and How to use Active Learning http://www.ineedce.com/userfiles/4/pdf/CEStrategiesPpt.pdf
The spirit of " If there is a will, there is a way."
Marshmallow Challenge:
1. Small-stake experiment
2. Test assumptions
3. Plan and experiment
4. Importance of process, can repeat
5. Success is about process
http://www.magnetmediafilms.com/blog/team-building-with-the-ted-marshmallow-challenge/#
www.wickedproblems.com
Opportunities Matrix
USER
PLATFORM
ASPECT
Who is this for?
How do they receive the info?

What is the info being communicated?
Leader -
"The person who holds most responsibility for a form of community engagement"
Assistant:
Manager -
"More specific
managing responsibilities."
Expert

-
"Expertise of a field."
Local
- "Local knowledge, knows
the language or the community."
Volunteer:
Organization -
"Involved with
group, church, club."
Local -
"Striving to improve their
community."
Video:
Tutorial
Lecture
Interactive
Stationary (Text/PDF):
Informative
Tips
Instructions
Activity
Blog/Feedback
Physical:
Prototype
Workshop
Toolkit
(Design Process)
Aware & Prepare

Define Topic

User Research

Analyze & Synthesize

Ideation

Refinement & Validation

Execute & Implement

Feedback & Reflect
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
Our requirements for our platform/module.
Empowering People
- main goal.

Give a Better Understanding
- of the tasks, project, process.

Teach Design Skills
- that can be applied again and again, and in other areas.

English
- language of our platform.

Internet Accessible
Full transcript