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History of Medicine Time Line -

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on 9 February 2015

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Transcript of History of Medicine Time Line -

A compound or preparation used for the treatment or prevention of disease
The science or practice of the diagnosis treatment and prevention of disease/illness

Ancient Chinese (1700BC-220AD)
a) Nursing ones body, use of herbs,

acupuncture.
b) Mainly used herbs,
acupuncture
to relieve pain and congestion,

also used moxibustion to treat
disease.
Believed in the need to treat the
whole body by curing the spirit
and nourishing the body
Began to search for medical reasons for illness
c) Life Span - 20 to 30 years
Primative Times (4000BC - 3000BC)
-Tribal witch doctors used ceremonies to treat illnesses.
- Used Herbs and plants for treatments
-
They used trepanation (surgically
removing a piece of a bone from the
skull)
- Illnesses and diseases were
considered as a punishment from God
- Average life span is 20 years
Medicine:
Ancient Greeks (1200BC-200AD)
Discovered there were scientific reasons for ailment
Discovered the brain controlled movements of limbs, not the heart
First to observe the human body and effects of disease. Dissected dead bodies and even live ones to find out what was going on inside
Believed illness is a result of natural causes
Used natural remedies similar to ones that are homemade now. They used massage and herbal treatment. Also Art therapy was used
Stressed that diet and exercise are ways to prevent disease.
Also prayed to the gods when treatments were not effective
Average lifespan 20-30 years
Middle Ages (AD 800 - AD 1400)
Symptoms of small pox was found by Rhazes in the middle ages. Other illnesses include diptheria, tuberculosis, typhoid, and malaria
People used herbs and leeches for disease and illness
If the illness wasn't treatable people prayed
If you became sick it was considered a punishment from the gods
Medicine practices were based of the Greek and Romans practices
Average lifespan 20-40 years

Ancient Romans (753 BC - 410 AD)
-Used herbal cures and remedies. (e. g. garlic -good for heart, unwashed wool - sores
-emphasized healthy mind equals healthy body
-purpose-built hospitals
,
public bathrooms & baths, sewer systems, clean water
-Employed battlefield surgery and painkillers such as opium and scopolamine.
-High hygiene standards- knew hygiene as a way to prevent disease
- Galen established the believe of the 4 body humors ; blood, plegm, black bile and yellow bile
-L. E at birth: 20-30 yrs. At age 10: 45-47 yrs.
Or 25 - 35 years
17th Century
In the early 17th Century, Doctors discovered how to treat Malaria with the bark from Cinchena tree
The first nations believed that a combination of nature and spiritual remedies were used for mental and physical sickness
Ave Life span - 35-45 yrs

16th Century
Cause of disease still not known - many people died from infection
Invention of microscope
The traditional treatment of gunshot wounds was cauterizing the wound with boiling oil
Ambroise Pare (french surgeon known as the "father of Modern surgery") use of ligatures to stop bleeding -
replaced that with dressing the wound with an egg yolk, rose oil, and turpentine mixture.
Syphilis was common, and treated with mercury through a urethral syringe
Life expectancy: late 30's- early 40's
(35 - 45 yrs)
History of Medicine Time Line -
P5 Health Sci 20

Ancient Egyptians
( 3000BC-300BC)
Used a combination of natural remedies, combined with prayers.
Coughing was soothed with a mixture of herbs and honey.
Wounds were cleaned with copper and stitched with thread and needle.
Aches and pains were treated with oils and massage.
From the process of mummification, they gained their greatest knowledge of human anatomy.
They knew that the heart, pulse rate and blood were important to the workings of the human body.
Physicians were priests
Bloodletting or leeches used as medical treatment
Average lifespan is about 20-30 years
Dark ages (400 -1400AD)
5th - 10th century
decline of western roman
empire.
Emphasis on saving the soul and the study of medicine was prohibited
(stops for over a 1000 years)
Prayer and divine intervention were used to treat illness and disease
used herbal medicine
Monks and priests provided care for sick people
bubonic plague
"ring around the rosies pocket full of posies
ashes , ashes we all fall down
average life span 30-55 / 20 - 30 yrs
Renaissance
(800 - 1400 AD)
Dissections of the body led to increased understanding of anatomy and physiology
Invention of the printing press allowed medical knowledge to be shared
First anatomy book published by Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)
Ave Life span 30-40 yrs
18th Century
> Doctors still did not know what caused disease. Some doctors thought disease was cause by 'miasmas' (odorless gases in the air)
>
Famous surgeon John Hunter invented new procedures such as tracheotomy (invented tube feeding)
> Many sailors suffered from scurvy (vitamin C deficiency)
> A Scottish surgeon named James Lind discovered that fresh fruit or lemon juice could cure or prevent scurvy.
>A major scourge of the 18th century was smallpox.
>
Edward Jenner invented vaccination.
> Gabriel Fahrenheit created the 1st Mercury Thermometer
>
Benjamin Franklin invented bifocals
Ave Life Span - 40-50 yrs
19th and 20th Century
End of 19th Century - Discovery of Penicillin, Mass production in 1940
Formal training for nurses began and women became active participants in health care.
Development of vaccines for various diseases
Discovery of microorganisms, infection control developed after this.
Anesthesia discovered
Development of pharmacology (making medicine)
1920 - Insulin (for diabetes)
Increased knowledge about the role of blood in the body
ABO blood groups discovered.
Found that white blood cells protect against disease.
1950 - Pacemaker
Treatments:
Bloodletting, medicine that are currently used, poisonous medicine or are addictive like arsenic, mercury, cocaine and opium
Antibiotics developed to fight infection
New machines - Kidney dialysis machine, heart lung machine,, surgical/diagnostic procedures that cure once fatal conditions, organ transplants, Invitro fertilization
Average lifespan: From ~40 to 80.
21 st Century
1st artificial heart was transplanted in a patient in Louisville,Ky in 2001
The Netherlands became the 1st country to legalize euthanasia in 2002
The Human Genome Project to identify all of the approx. 20,000-25,000 genes in the human body
Stem cells were used in the treatments of diseases early in the 2000's and lead to the increased research in the treatment of cancer and other diseases
Vaccinations for cervical cancer and Herpes zoster (Shingles) in 2006
Potential for 21st Century
Cure for AIDS, cancer and heart disease
Genetic manipulation to prevent inherited diseases
Nerves in the brain and spinal cord are regenerated to prevent or treat paralysis
Antibiotics are developed that do not allow pathogens to develop resistance
Ave life span 90-100yrs
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