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Mini Cases in Psychoactive Drugs and their Effects on the Br

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McCrae Nistad

on 6 April 2016

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Transcript of Mini Cases in Psychoactive Drugs and their Effects on the Br

Background
OBJECTIVE
-hyperactive
-rapid speech

SUBJECTIVE
-increased alertness
-ability to stay awake for long periods of time
-improved mood

"white powder in lines on a mirror"
Neurological Process
The brain processes the information it is exposed to with the help of the thalamus, which filters sensory input and regulates our perception of the world around us.

On LSD, the thalamus allows unprocessed information that would otherwise be ignored into our stream of consciousness, thereby enhancing the colors, sounds, etc. that we see.

Seratonin is the main neurotransmitter involved in hallucinogenic drug use.
LSD enhances seratonin activity at 5-HT1 receptors and blocks it at 5-HT2 receptors.
Psilocin, a chemical substance derived from psilocybin, is found in LSD and binds to the seratonin receptors of neurons. This causes the halluncinatory effects of the drugs and prevents the brain's seratonin from being processed properly.

Additionally, the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex are chemically "activated" by the drug, producing dream-like effects and making it more difficult to separate the imagination from reality.


LSD
(Lysergic Acid Diethylamide)
Subjective Effects
:
-hallucinations
-intensified senses & emotions (brighter colors, sharper sounds)
-mixed senses (“seeing” sounds or “hearing” colors)
-changes in perception of time


Background
OBJECTIVE
-dilated pupils
-overly affectionate/emotional
-perspiration
-teeth clenching
-rapid heart rate

SUBJECTIVE
-sees vibrant colors, is sensitive to light, has visual hallucinations
ie. "the floor is made of diamonds"
Sources Cited
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/05/01/lsd-photos-chelsea-morgan-trippy-interview-about-drug-photography_n_3188236.html

http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/cocaine

http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/methamphetamine/what-are-long-term-effects-methamphetamine-abuse

http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/heroin/how-heroin-used

http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana

http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/hallucinogens-dissociative-drugs/where-can-i-get-more-scientific-information-hallucinogens-diss
Mini Cases in Psychoactive Drugs and their Effects on the Brain
Examples
Cocaine
Subjective Effects:
-elevated mood, alertness
-excess confidence and energy

-paranoia/anxiety
-irritability
-restlessness


Neurological Process
Cocaine blocks the neurotransmitters seratonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, etc., causing a euphoric high.

The drug prevents dopamine from being recycled and results in a buildup of that neurotransmitter in the synapse between neurons, disrupting normal brain communication.
Long Term Effects:
-
Cardiac
: increased BP, arrhythmia, risk of heart attack
-
Brain
: seizures, stroke, negative/violent behavior
-
Respiratory
: lung damage, nasal perforation
-
Gastrointestinal
: hypoxia leading to stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal perforations
-
Kidneys
: kidney failure due to high BP
Background
OBJECTIVE
-distinctive odor
-yellowing teeth & nails

SUBJECTIVE
-decreased appetite
-weight loss
-increased concentration
-increased relaxation
Methamphetamine
Subjective Effects:
-increased alertness
-decreased appetite
-feeling more intelligent or focused
-more argumentative and confrontational

Long Term Effects
-high levels of microglial cells which attack healthy cells, resulting in neurotoxicity

-weight loss
-tooth decay and tooth loss ("meth mouth")
-skin sores from excessive scratching
-increased BP leading to stroke or heart failure
-liver, kidney, lung damage
Background
OBJECTIVE
-apathetic, often absent from class
-often passed out

SUBJECTIVE
-diminished chronic pain from a
physical trauma that occurred about
a year ago
Heroin
Neurological Process
Heroin spurs a surge of dopamine in the brain's synapses and causes the same intense euphoric high that cocaine and meth can.

It binds to opioid receptors in the brain and has the same chemical effect as morphine or prescription opiates.

However, heroin also has a powerful effect on the spinal chord and essentially blocks all sensations of physical pain.
Subjective Effects
:
-euphoria
-
dry mouth
-flushed skin
-drowsiness
-confusion



Heroin can decrease one's heart rate and breathing rate so much that an overdose could easily result in death.
Background
OBJECTIVE
-red eyes
-distinctive odor
-dry mouth

SUBJECTIVE
-closed eye visual effects
-forgetfulness
-a sense of relaxation
-increased appetite
-dizziness
-shallow breathing
-slowed reaction time

Marijuana
Marijuana contains the chemical substance
delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
(THC) which passes from the lungs to the bloodstream when it is smoked and binds to receptors in the brain.

When used over a prolonged period of time before the brain is fully developed, marijuana is shown to decrease memory and the brain's ability to make connections.
Long term effects:
LSD is non-addictive, but some people experience increased anxiety, paranoia, flashbacks, and even psychosis after taking the drug (although this typically happens in the case of a bad trip or an overdose)
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