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Latin American Music

IGCSE - Teaching/Revision resource
by

Elise Haller-Shannon

on 8 January 2016

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Transcript of Latin American Music

A lot of Latin American music is hugely influenced by coulourful and exotic carnivals and a range of dance styles.
L
A
T
I
N
A
M
E
R
I
C
A

Latin America is a region of the Americas that consists of twenty sovereign states.
These states cover an area that stretches from the southern border of the United States .
To the southern tip of South America, including the Caribbean.
THe MUSIC
TANGO
Tango is a sensuous paired dance that originated in the 1880s in the slums and bars of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
It is traditionally played by a
sextet
(or sometimes a quartet) with two
violins
,
piano
,
double bass
and two
bandoneons
.
The tango is danced anti-clockwise around the dance floor.
Watch this video of an Argentine Tango.
How would you describe the style of dancing?
Powerful, dramatic, stylised walking...
The steps are based heavily on improvisation.
did you know?
How many beats are in a bar?
The tango has a characteristic
rhythmic ostinato
. What musical term would you use to describe the rhythm?
How does the music convey the intensity of the tango? Think about dynamics, articulation, tonality, texture etc.
the music
The music of the tango is like the dancing - full of character, dramatic and intense. It has a very distinctive style.
Listen to the music that accompanies this traditional Argentinian tango and answer the following questions.
Syncopated.
'March like', staccato, short notes and phrases contrast with song like passages, sudden changes in dynamics,
homophonic texture
, glissandi, minor key...
4 (the first beat is strongly accented)
instruments
and
styles

chile
bolivia
mexico
qUENA
The quena (sometimes written 'kena' in English) is a traditional flute of the
Andes
.
six 'finger holes'
To produce sound, the player closes the top end of the pipe with the flesh between his chin and lower lip, and blows a stream of air downward.
Listen to this quena playing in the first half of the video extract.
As you watch, answer the following questions:
How would you describe the
timbre
of the music?
How does the quena differ from the western flute?
Dark, textured, vibrato
No keys, air is blown into the instrument not over the top of the mouth piece.
NUEVA CANCION
Nueva Cancion, meaning 'New Song', is a
political song movement
through which people stand up for their own culture in the face of oppression either from their own government or abroad.
It developed in
Argentina
,
Chile
and
Urugay
during the 1950s and 1960s but has since
spread throughout Latin America
.
Victor Jara composed 'El Aparecido', which
illustrates the formal structure of the Chilean
Cueca
.
Cueca is a type of sesquialtera (music that can be felt in both 3/4 and 6/8 metrical rhythm) dance music genre of Chile, Bolivia and Argentina.
THE MUSIC OF
dance
Dance is a huge part of Latin American culture. In IGCSE music we will study a paired dance that orginated Argentina...
The bandoneon is a concertina style instrument invented in 1910. It is held between both hands, with pushing and pulling motions forcing air through its bellows, which is routed through reeds by pressing its buttons.
Intro
1st Stanza
Abre sendas por los cerros
Deja su huella en el viento
El aguila le da el vuelo
Y lo cobija el silencio.
2nd Stanza
Nunca se quejo del frio
Nunca se quejo del sueno.
El pobre siente su paso
Y lo sigue como ciego.
Refrain
Correle, correle correla, Por
Aqui, por aqui, por alla!
Correle, correle, correla,
Correle, que te van a matar,
Correle, correle correla,
Correle, que te van a matar,
Correle, correle correla!
Instrumental
Interlude
3rd Stanza
Su cabeza es rematanda
Por cuervos con garra de oro:
Como lo ha crucificado
La furia del poderoso.
4th Stanza
Hijo de la rebeldia
Lo siguen veinte mas viente.
Porque regala su vida
Ellos le quieren dar muerte.
Refrain
Instrumental Interlude
4th Stanza repeat
Hijo de la rebeldia
Lo siguen veinte mas viente.
Porque regala su vida
Ellos le quieren dar muerte.
Melody starts in a major key but changes to minor.
Melody from intro is repeated, quena plays first three notes an octave higher.
EL APARECIDO
Another instrument from the Andes enters after the quena. What is this instrument?
Panpipes
What instrument is playing the accompaniment?
Guitar
You are going to listen to 'El Aparecido' and complete a short analysis of it.
Refrain
Minor key
Starts major, but ends in the
tonic
minor key.
Backing vocals
are present.
The music feels like it is in 3/4 and 6/8. This can also be known as a
polyrhythm
.
Minor key (tonic)
6/8 meter
Played by the quena (kena)
Sesquialtera
Meter
An
ascending melodic sequence
is used.
Quena plays 'tail' just as we heard after the 1st stanza
Minor key
Begins pp and gradually crescendos.
K'antu
A type of
ceremonial panpipe music
from Bolivia.
As you listen to this K'antu, make notes on the following:
WANKARAS
(DRUMS)
CH'INISKU
(TRIANGLE)
ZAMPONAS
(PANPIPES)
task
Syncopation
features heavily in Latin American music and could be considered as being one of the
general characteristics
of this genre
.
In your groups you are going to compose a syncopated rhythm to play simultaneously with this 'march like' rhythm below:
Remember to keep it simple!
When you have composed your rhythm you should rehearse it as a group to perform to the rest of the class.
Extension task: You may invent your own 'march like' rhythm if you would like.
The K'antu incorporates three different types of instruments:
What instruments play in the introduction?
What type of
scale
is this music based on?
What are the
intervals
between the zamponas playing the melody?
bolivian k'antu instruments
Wankaras and ch'inisku
Pentatonic (5 note scale)
5ths and Octaves
mariachi
Mariachi music is a form of
folk music
from Mexico.
Their songs speak about love, betrayal, death, politics, revolutionary heroes and even animals (one particularly famous song is "La Cucaracha").
It is the sum of a
cultural revolution
expressed through a group of musicians, dressed in popular clothing (most recently charro suits), which encompasses the essence of Mexico and its people.
What instruments can you hear?
Violin, guitar, voice, trumpet...
Another instrument you can hear is the

guitarrón
.
- This is a mexican instrument and is literally Spanish for 'large guitar'. It requires no amplification due to it's size and is an integral part of the Mariachi band.
Another instrument is the
vihuela
. It is slightly larger than a ukelele. It is played with a thumb pick in the rasqueado (strummed) style. It is the harmonic and rhythmic foundation of the mariachi band.
charango
The charango is a small Andean
stringed instrument
.
The instrument is widespread today throughout the Andean regions of
Ecuador
,
Bolivia
,
Peru
, northern
Chile
and northwestern
Argentina
, where it is a popular musical instrument which exists in many variant forms.
5 sets of double strings (but sometimes 6 sets).
Body was traditionally made with the shell from the back of an armadillo, but now wood.
About 66 cm long
what you need to know
charango
cueca
quena/kena
sesquilatera
panpipes
tango
syncopation
homophonic
bandoneon
guitar
mariachi
Full transcript