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The Use and Impact of ICT

The Use and Impact of ICT in visual form
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Stuart Ayres

on 26 May 2010

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Transcript of The Use and Impact of ICT

The Use and Impact of ICT Choosing a network for a company Networks Factors which influence choice: cost of network
size of organisation
how the system will be used
existing systems (=legacy systems)
performance required
security issues Types of networks available and the use of associated hardware client server networks peer to peer networks advantages and disadvantages of: http://en.kioskea.net/contents/cs/csintro.php3 http://en.kioskea.net/contents/cs/peer.php3 Network topologies Bus/Ethernet Ring Star Advantages & disadvantages:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bus_network#Advantages_and_disadvantages_of_a_bus_network Advantages & disadvantages:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ring_network#Advantages Advantages & disadvantages:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_network#Advantages Suitable topologies for LAN and WAN Software components Network management, administration and problem solving strategies User accounts and logs
security strategies
configuration management
remote management
disaster planning (backup and restoration)
auditing (keeping logs). Questions The Internet Human Computer Interface (HCI) Working with ICT Database systems Management of Change Management Information Systems System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) 6.A business has thirty staff each of whom have their own stand-alone computer. The business is
considering networking all these computers but is concerned at problems this may create.
As an ICT consultant you have been asked to prepare a report for the company’s owners, outlining the issues that networking the computers could bring.
Your report should include:
•The benefits and drawbacks of moving to a networked system
•The factors involved in choosing a network
•The extra communications facilities and possible changes in working practices that thisnetwork could provide.[18]
Quality of Written Communication.[2] June 2009 Any 18 points or 9 well argued or a mixture of both but have to cover all 418 sections to get full marks

Benefits
•Data can be pooled and therefore accessed by a wide range of users. This helps to ensure data integrity.
•Hardware resources such as printers and scanners can be shared. This is a much more cost effective solution than providing each user with their own set of peripheral devices.
•Software resources can be shared. One version of the software can be purchased and installed centrally which cuts down on management needs.
•Security is centralised and so improved. The network manager can control access by setting access rights and user permissions and by auditing computer use etc.
•Back up procedures are easier to complete if centrally located and managed. Instead of each user being responsible for backing up their data, the network manager will take responsibility for running regular back-ups and recoveries.

Disadvantages
•Setting up a network is more costly than running a group of standalone computers. In addition to the stations a central server is needed.
•Networks are particularly vulnerable to viruses. If one machine is
‘infected’, it is easier for this infection to spread than would be the case
in a standalone environment.
•Network management requires a degree of specialist knowledge and
this will mean employing a network manager for this purpose.
•Networks are vulnerable to crashes and if the network crashes you
cannot use any of the computers.
•Networks require more maintenance. There are more things that can
go wrong, cables can break, network files can be corrupted, the system can be jammed due to network traffic. Staff have to be employed to complete this maintenance.

Factors
•Cost of the network. Fibre optic cable cabling offers faster transmission rates than other media but costs significantly more. One has to also take into account the ongoing maintenance costs.
•The size of a network can vary depending on the size of the organisation and can go from a small room containing one or two PCs to a global network.
•How the system will be used. Are the users going to require a wide range of applications? Are they going to store a large number of data files? Where does the processing get done?
•Existing systems. Can the current stock of PCs and peripherals be used on the new network?
•Performance required. Speed of processing, reliability, user friendliness, capacity
•Security. Will they have to prepare for outsider access? etc.
• Topology

Communications / Changes in working practices
•Email and being able to transfer information between employees.
•Video conferencing to get expert help on particularly tricky work
•Internet access to research particular procedures or latest
developments.
•Wireless access and its benefits
•Ability to telework
•Re-training of staff
Quality of Written Communication
2 June 2008 2.Network topologies have different properties.
(a)Draw and label a ring network.[2]
(b)State two advantages of a star network.[2]
(c)Other than cost or topology issues discuss in detail three factors that will influence the choice of a network.[6] A) 1 mark for ring shape and labelling cable 1 mark for position of file server and terminal

B) If cable breaks network can continue working Very easy to add new machines

C) 1 mark for naming each factor and 1 mark for fuller description x 3 (i) Security issues
•How secret is the data •Consequences of others seeing it • Firewall •Number of users •Spyware, viruses, hackers, etc.

(ii) Size of the organisation •Needs can range from a small LAN to a global WAN •Some communications media are limited to the distance they have to travel •Amount of data processing required must also be considered.

(iii) How the system will be used •What type of applications do users require? •Will they need large data storage? •From where will they operate the network e.g. at home in office or remote access
from different locations.

(iv) Existing systems to integrate
•More often networks are not developed from scratch but need to fit in with existing systems. Sometimes an extension is required e.g. when a new branch office opens.
•Therefore any new network must fit in with the operating systems and protocols of the existing.
•It must support any peripherals already in use e.g. bar code readers, printers, etc.

(v) Performance and speed required Performance in terms of:
• reliability •user friendliness • capacity •speed of processing.
Different parts of the organisation may have different performance requirements. e.g. a realtime e-commerce system may require greater speeds and capacity and security than the in house payroll system Telecommuting 2) Teleworking
This means using communications such as video conferencing to carry out job related tasks. http://www.ivc.ca/proteleworkers.html Advantages and Disadvantages to the employee; Use and associated hardware;
Hardware for teleworking would usiually include the following;
Computer
Monitor
Internet Connection
Microphone (Used for video conferencing)
Web Cam (Used for video conferencing)
Internet Phone
Printer
Sound Card
Speakers

The uses for teleworking are;
Ideal for employees working from home e.g Programmers, Web designers etc.
Used for businesses with various locations around the world (Employeese can communicate with one another without being physically present.

Advantages and Disadvantages to the emplyer; http://www.ivc.ca/proemployer.html 1) Video Conferencing
Allows face to face meetings to be conducted without the participants being in the same room or even the same geographical area ;=] Frees Time travelling
=] Saves on cost of travelling
=] Alllows face to face communicationg without having to be physically present
=[ Physical interction could prove more effective
=[ Limited to what can be seen
=[ May need to find space in home if thats where employees are working from
=[ Employees can feel self concoius advantages and disadvantages to employees advantages and disadvantages to employers =[ More Diffficult to hold meetings
=[ Harder for managers to manage work
=[ Increased costs for equiptment
=[ Increades security risks
=[ Hard to determine how hard staff are working
=] Can contact employees in different countries Past Paper Questions 5. The IT section in a college has decided to introduce a code of conduct for all its IT users.
Discuss three problems which might have prompted this decision and suggest suitable guidelines
which could be included in the code of conduct, to avoid such problems in the future. 3 × [2] June 2006; Answers Codes Of Conduct An agreement made by an employee to obey the rules of the organisation and work within the specified guidelines as regards to the use of ICT and the internet. Contents A code of conduct would usually contain the following;
Responsibilities of the employee
Abiding by current legislations
Security policies
Authorisation
Data access permissions
Security
Complying with licensing agreememtns
Penalties for misuse Potential Problems of using ict in the workplace Introduction of viruses to the network.
Misuse of ICT facilities such as using an organisation’s printers for personal work and personnal use of the internet
Running up telephone bills for own purposes and using company time for personal email.
Distribution of material that is racially or sexually offensive i.e sending offensive images over the organisations network
Misuse of data for illicit purposes.
Inappropriate use of mobiles phones in restaurants, schools and public transport.
Blackmail, computer fraud or selling to other organisations.
Violating terms of copyright or software agreements thus forcing the company to face legal action Example of a code of conduct; The Difference between legal and moral issues with respect to codes of conduct; Legal issue; An issue arrising in which the law has been broken and prosecution may be considered. Moral issue; Issue arrising that may be considered wrong, but is not exactly illegal D= Disinformation
I= Intellectual property rights
P= Privacy
E= Equity
E= Employment pattern
Factors to consider when designing a good UI On screen help Tutorials Easy to understand Ability to search Consistency of design and
pop-up information Screens look similar Pop ups appear in the same place Heading and sub headings consistent Differentiation between
user expertise Shortcuts different ways of performing same operations Clear navigational structure Buttons in same place Text added to buttons Forwards and
back buttons Use of wizards Use by disabled Speech recognition Alternative colour schemes Contrast Specially designed input devices Larger font Types of HCI -CLI
-Touch Screen Interface
-Biometric Devices
-Speech Control
-GUI - WIMP's
-Menu Driven Interface A good Human Computer Interface (HCI) is vital for an information system to work well. Describe
four factors which should be taken into account when designing a good HCI, explaining why each
factor is important. Exam Question There are several common types of databases;
each type of database differs in how the data
is structured. These types of databases include:

Relational Databases
Flat-file Databases

In this beautiful section you are going to learn about:

flat-files and relational databases
the use of primary keys,foreign keys and links.
database normalisation
data warehousing and data mining
The purpose of a database management system (DBMS) including:
Queries and data dictionaries

Flat file databases Flat file databases are the simplest storage
system as it only cotains one table of data
which limits the user to simple storage and
retrieval systems. It can be created by using database or spreadsheet software.
With a flat-file, the applications software
would access the set of data held in the one table. Although the database may be
simple to set up, there are alot of problems with the 'Flat-file' database:

There is lots of data duplication - data has to be re-entered although its previously been entered. For example, if a customer has hired out tool's before at a garage, their details (such as Customer No, Forename and surname) would have to be re-entered, and this wastes time and uses unneccesary storage space. -Tables thus contain identical data.

It is limited to lists of data
There is a problem with data integrity - inconsistencies in the data can arise when, say a customer changes their address, the old records would contain the old customers address details

Relational databases Relational database, is where the database
is kept in tables with relationships established
between them.
The software is used to set yp and hold the data as
well as to extract it and manipulate it. Advantages Disadvantages Data can be combined more easily
Data is easier to search for
Data integrity is maintained- so if someone alters their details, it will automatically update
There is no duplication of data
Hard to set up
it is inappropriate for simple lists
it is more expensive Buy the wjec book for more infomation on Datbase systems - http://www.whsmith.co.uk/CatalogAndSearch/ProductDetails-Essential+ICT+for+WJEC+AS+Level+-9781850084136.html ICT Security Systems Questions 1) Why Back Up? 2) Factors to consider when desinging securtiy policies 3) Preventing Missuse 4) Factors determing how much a company spends on risk control It is important that companies back up their data on a very regular basis because there are numerous potential threats to ICT systems and data, which if occured, can cause many consequences for an organisation. Taking regular backups will ensure that if data did come under threat, the potential damages caused would be minimized . Threats to data can include;
Viruses, Worms and trojans
Spam
Sabotage (Deliberate abuse from staff)
Fire
Natural Disaster
Terrorism
Hacking
Theft
Faulty Software and Hardware Consequences of loosing data;
1) Loss of business and income- for example if a company looses the use of all their hardware, they wont be able to do any wotk and they will have to spend more time sorting problems out. This could cause a business a loss of money.
2) Loss of repuation- organisations wil not look good if they cant lok after data properly. Customers will lack confidence in the company and this will reflect badly on the companies reputation.
3) Legal action- Organisations who fail to adhere to the Data Protection Act 1998 will face prosecution. Physical Security- for example restricting access to the computer equiptment (Hardware) and restricting access to the storage medium (Software).
Preventation Of missuse;Two methods used are physical and logical methods. For exapmple putting locks and security guards around hardware and using th software to control access to the programs and data on the system Audit trails for detection; ICT Systems provide audit trails where it is possible to track all the details of a partcular transaction e.g sales processing system could check that a customer made an order, the order was paid for and that the goods were dispatched and recieved by the customer. Any irregularities could then be checked and investigated.
Audit trails allow a record to be kept of;
1) Who has made changes to the data.
2) When the data was changed.
3) What changes were made. Continous investigations of irregularities;
Querying any transactions which may be out of the ordinary e.g An unusually high credit card transaction or a transaction placed in 2 different countries using the same card within minuites of each other. System Access; establishing procedures for acccessing data such as log in procedures and firewalls. These will ensure that access to ICT systems containing the organisations data, programs and information is controlled in some way, so that only authorised access is allowed. Personnel administration; Staff should be administered correctly in order for them to realise that if they do misuse the ICT facilities, it will be discovered and they will be disciplined.
This will include;
Training
Fitting the employees to the task
Ensuring that staff are controlled Operational procedures including disaster recovery planning and dealing with threats from viruses; Operational procedues should be put in place to minimise the various threats to ICT systems. These could include;
Users been given codes of conducts
Rotation of staff duties
disaster recovery procedures
procedures to reduce the liklihood of virus attack.
Staff codes of conduct and responsibilities; An organisation is usually responsible for the acts of its employees, it is important that all staff members are aware of what these responsibilitis are. Disciplinary Procedures; Staff only take notice if there are serious repercautions in the cases of misuse of ICT systems. Staff need to be aware of the problems that misuses can cause and also the consequences should they be caught. 6. Most organisations now have ICT security policies.
(a) Discuss in detail the potential threats to data and the possible consequences of accidental or
deliberate destruction of data. Illustrate your answer with distinctly different examples in
each case. [10]
(b) Discuss four methods which could be used to prevent the deliberate destruction or misuse
of data. 4 × [2] June 2006 Mark Scheme! Risk Analysis; the process of assessing the likelihood of certain events happening and estimating the cost of the damage they can sause and what can be done at reasonable cost to eliminate or minimise the risk. A risk analysis includes;
Identifying potential risks
The Likelihood of the rick occuring
Short and long term consequences of the threat
How well equipped is the company to deal with the threat Impact on Businesses Disadvantages To customers Problems with fraudulent sites
Worries about security of card details
Can be more hassle to return goods
Hidden cost of postage
Harder to assess goods before ordering
Loss of social side of shopping To Businesses Network downtime can be very expensive
Increased competition from abroad
Cost of delivery can make goods more expensive
Relience on third party delivery companies Accessing on-line
information Search Engines boolean searches Boolean searching allows you to narrow down your search by using special terms, such as AND, OR and NOT, before keywords. A search for an exact match or quotation can also be maade by using the ' mark at the begining and end of the quote.
Boolean searches are usefull as they help narrow down search results
Distributed Computing Advantages Disadvantages Reduces cost of an expensive powerful computer as a supercomputer is not needed
Can pass work to computers anywher in the world
Improved performance as each computer can work on part of the data
Issues with the security of data as it is spread out across many computers
Example of ditributed computing http://www.setiathome.berkeley.edu/sah_about.php E-Commerce E-commerce is the buying or selling of goods
and/or services online. To do this a business
needs the following:
Trained staff to create/maintain the website
An electronic database of stock
A database of customers and orders
Methods of secure payments Ability to order goods 24/7
Greater choice of goods
Cost savings can lead to cheaper goods
No travelling needed
Online catalogues are easily updated
Fewer staff needed
Low start up/ running costs compared to a store
Easy to change prices
Ability to reach customers any time of day
Global market place Advantages To Customers
To Bussinesses Moral, Social and
Ethical issues Connecting to the internet This include:
Censorship issues. as no-one owns the internet materials can't be censored
Accuracy of information. Information on the internet if often made up or inacurate
Privicy
effects on communities. Some people argue that the internet has led to a lack of individual social interaction
ownership and controll. No-one owns the internet and different countrys have different laws govening things such as copyright ect Dial-up Broadband Mobile access Dial-up uses a modem connected to a phone line to connect to the internet. It has become out dated as it is very slow to use compared to broadband, and uses the phoneline meaning you cant use the internet and the phone at the same time. Broadband gives a much faster connection than dial-up, this means the user can download music, watch videos/listen to radio, can use webcams and use search engines much faster. Unlike Dial-up it also doesn't use a phone line. Although mobile internet can be slower than broadband and allows less bandwidth, it does have its advantages over broadband,these include use on the move and use to change plans easily e.g flights What is management of change? How can change effect the workforce? Questions? Examples If your lazyy.... Training
Aware of changes
Explain the advantages
Act on critiques
Social groups maintained
Expell rumours of redundancies
Management of change is the job that falls to managers of a company that is going through a period of structural stage because of the introduction of a new ICT system.This is an extremely important job because fear of the changes ahead can often demoralise the workforce and cause a divide in the company between managers and staff. How can managers overcome the
resistance of change? All staff should be made fully aware of the changes the new system will bring and should be involved with its introduction.This could be via a small input on how the new system should work or by them having a larger part in the introduction of the system.Any critiques made of the new system by staff should be taken fully into account so that th new system caters to the needs of the people who will use it and so that they feel their voices are heard.Comprehensive training should also be given to all staff and should be presented as a plesent learning experience.Training should be issued by staff outside the organisation and the trainees should be put up in a nice hotel so the social aspect of the trip is enhanced.This would be a positive boost for morale in the company.High morale is a very important feature of many successful buisnesses so keeping social groups together through the move is very important because staff will often work much better within these groups.Managers should also explain the advantages of the new system over the old one so that all the staff are firmly behind it because of the benefits they know it will bring. 7.An organisation has introduced new ICT systems. These new systems have had a great impact upon employment opportunities and the way in which people work within the organisation.

(a)Discuss three potential health issues which might occur with the introduction of these new ICT systems and describe measures the organisation could take to prevent them.
3 × [2]

(b)Discuss in detail the impact these new ICT systems could have upon jobs and work patterns. Illustrate your answers with three distinctly different examples in each case.
3 × [2]

(c)Employees must be aware of both legal and moral issues relating to the use of ICT systems.Explain the differences between legal and moral issues with respect to codes of conduct of employees in the organisation. Illustrate your answers with three distinctly different examples.
3 × [2]

Quality of Written Communication[2]


Investigation Analysis Design Implementation Maintenance Evaluation What is an MIS (Management Information System) An MIS collects information from a multitude of resources (both internal and external), this information is then presented to the user in an accesible/easy-to-use format which allows the user to make efficient decisions. Definition An organised collection of peoples, procedures and recources designed to support the decision of management. Example An example is a school where the Headteacher uses the MIS system to aid them in their decision making as all the information is consolidated into one simple system.
The MIS collects information both internally and externally. For example, the school will have internal records of attendance and exam results, etc. The MIS will also use external resources, such as the county's attendance records and exam results.
The Headteacher can then use the MIS to reach decisions, for example, they may hear that a pupil has 87% attendance record, in order to decide whether this is a good attendance figure, the Headteacher can compare it with the attendance records for other pupils in both the school and the county in order to determine whether or not an 87% record attendance is impressive or not. Internal and External components of an MIS
Data Flow Diagram - School Example External Components Education Authority Local Council Records National School Records Census Management Information System
Collects data
Processes data
Stores Data
Produces Reports Internal Components Registration Records Admissions System Test results Headteacher Features of a good MIS include: Factors leading to a poor MIS includes: AFIRM
Accesible to a wide range users
Flexible-data analysis must not be limited.
Information given when required
Relevant, accurate and up-to-date.
Most appropriate format. Over complex system
Inadequate intial analysis by systems analysist.
Lack of management involvement-system will not suit their needs.
Inappropriate hardware/software-limits system's performance.
Lack of management knowledge of computer systems-not knowing the systems capabilities.
Poor communications between professionals.
Lack of professional standards will lead to the deployment of a badly made MI. Fear of redundancy Fear of reduction in status Fear of ridicule Changes in location Some staff will fear their
skill set will be completly
negated by the new system
and that their job could be
at risk. Often when a new system and way of working is introduced into a company managers will be able to get through more work and less of the middle levels will be needed.Some managers will lose power if data is held centrally because the data would no longer belong to their department and they could be taken out of the big decisions the company makes. Some staff especially older members may fear that their lack of ICT knowledge could cause them to be ridiculed by younger more ICT aware staff. With a reduction in staff the office space required by the company is often reduced and the company will move to a smaller property to save money(heat, light etc).This could mean some staff have to travel further which may not be possible for everyone. Questions The stages of implementation:
Aquisition of hardware and software
Production of code
Installation
Training
Change over methods:
-Direct changeover
-Parallel changeover
-Phased conversion
-Pilot conversion
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