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Mt Tambora volcanic eruption - Case Study!
Transcript of Mt Tambora volcanic eruption - Case Study!
"the year without summer'' The Mt Tambora Volcanic eruption occurred in 1815 on Sumbawa island, Indonesia
Noted to be one of the most powerful eruptions in historic times, Tambora caused tsunamis and days of darkness.
With constant seismic and volcanic activity among the plates, this area is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire.
Tambora was formed by an active subduction zone leaking magma into a chamber inside the mountain. Prior to the eruption in 1815, Tambora was a cone-shaped mountain which stood 14,000 feet high, making it one of the tallest peaks in Indonesia. After the 1815 eruption, a crater (caldera) was formed which is approximately 4 miles in diameter and 3,640 feet deep.
The first sign of activity took place in 1812 when small eruptions of ash and steam were accompanied by earthquakes. the first eruption lasted approximately two hours!
The next explosion took place on April 10th, 1815 and this caused the collapse of the eruption column. As a result, pyroclastic flows down the slope wiped out the villages of Sanggar and Tambora. This eruption lasted approximately three hours. Columns of fire appeared at the top of Tombora.
The final and biggest blast occurred. Toxic gases, rocks, pumice and hot ash rushed across the island and instantly killed over 10,000 people in Tambora province. When this pyroclastic flow hit the water, it generated tsunamis to all the neighbouring islands which caused death and destruction. It is estimated that there were over 82,000 deaths resulting from the eruption of Mount Tambora.