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CCIs - a source of growth, jobs and innovation (European perspective)
Transcript of CCIs - a source of growth, jobs and innovation (European perspective)
culture today? Europe as a cultural project Utopia or reality? WIPO copyright industries (2003) What are the Cultural and Creative Industries (CCIs)? LEG Eurostat (2000, 2012) KEA European Affairs (2006) DCMS (2009) KEA's definition of CCIs Beyond culture = heritage
Culture as an input to creation "You need the past because you need memory, but you need invention as well.
You have to be grateful to traditions. As an Italian, I am very grateful to traditions
but at the same time I hate traditions. The excess of tradition may kill you" (Renzo Piano). Contribution to the economy of culture in Europe Value added to EU GDP The sector performs better than others
during the crisis Italy between 2007-2010 Why do the CCIs matter than? Source: http://jnchaintreuil.com/tag/experience/ The economy has changed More educated people and demanding users Industrial economy --> service and experience economy Rapid uptake of ICT --> democratisation of knowledge Distinguish yourself Develop tailor-made products Offer "Creativity” is defined in a cross-sector and multidisciplinary way, mixing elements of “artistic creativity”, “economic innovation” as well as “technological innovation.” Innovation has changed Innovation : introduction of a new and significantly improved product, process, marketing or organisational method in business practice, workplace or the relation between the organisation and the external environment. Technological innovation Innovation Improving quality of life
and sustainable development
(XXI century) Improving productivity
(XX century) There is no innovation without creativity Culture-based creativity is linked to the ability of people, notably artists, to think imaginatively or metaphorically, to challenge the conventional, and to call on the symbolic and affective to communicate (KEA 2009). CCIs are a major source of culture-based creativity and non-technological innovation Non-technological innovation Culture can contribute to: New products, services, and processes Branding and image (for corporate organisations and territories) Innovative working environments (artistic interventions) Uptake of new technologies Ethical values and social dialogue New governance models for local public policies Cities are the best placed to stimulate creative spillovers Cities have long been important arenas of cultural production. They very well know their cultural heritage and actors and have a key role in fostering cultural products, with a strong local identity. The evolution of a global, service-oriented economy has placed culture at the very centre of urban development and has shifted traditional notions of culture as art and heritage to a view of culture as an economic asset (Miles et al. 2000). Cities have historically been the places where much innovation has occurred. The size, density and compactness of urban centres foster interpersonal interaction and create greater opportunities for enhanced information flows (EC Competitiveness Report 2010). Cities are also in a unique position to set the ecology fostering interactions as their size facilitates exchange and learning. They know very well their cultural assets and creative companies established locally, very often micro-enterprise. Is Europe making the most of it? “People from technology don't understand the creative process that these companies go through to make their products, and they don't appreciate how hard it is.so And the creative companies don't appreciate how creative technology is; they think it's just something you buy. And there is a gulf of understanding between the two of them.”
Steve Jobs — Wall Street Journal European Agenda for Culture (2007) - culture as a tool to promote intercultural dialogue and foster creativity. Innovation Union (2010) and Horizon 2020 (2011): broad concept of innovation encompassing new products and processes but also services, marketing, branding and design methods or new forms of collaborative arrangement. Green paper on CCIs (2010): «CCIs play a greater role in national and regional innovation systems than has previously been recognised by policymakers» European Creative Industry Alliance (ECIA): pilot actions on creative spillovers, access to finance and clustering Cities need to connect to international markets for companies to reach a sustainable size.
This is what cities are actually doing – and Europe plays a crucial role to allow them implement their culture and creative industries policies (Structural Funds and European exchange programmes like URBACT and INTERREG). A Europe of culture or culture for an innovative and competitive Europe? Nantes Métropole Arnhem Artistic interventions Danish and Swedish companies Source: http://arc-hominis.com/presentation1.html http://www.covoiturage-nantesmetropole.fr/images/images_client/nantesmetropole/default/carte2.jpg Nearly 600,000 inhabitants Declining industrial economy
in the 80s-90s Focus on tourism and CCIs
in the last 20 years Nantes Métropole Main actions - at the city island ("Ile de Nantes") where the shipyard was located - Infrastructure investment (Alstom --> incubator, La Fabrici --> artistic laboratory)
- Call for artists and architects to give the islanda new omage and meaning (La Folle Journée, Festival des Allumés, Royal Deluxe, Dominique Perrault, François Grether, Alexandre Chemetoff, Jean Nouvel, Smets e Azzi)
- School of Fine Arts (education) Main challenges Revitalise the local economy building on the strong industrial know-how and traditions Give new life to the industrial abandoned areas Make the city attractive to local inhabitants, tourists, investors and talents Learn from European cities and put Nantes in Europe's map (INTERREG projects, ECIA) Main results Improved image and attractiveness: 7th preferred destination in France The Ile de Nantes is now a vibrant quarter with flourishing cultural and economic activities Nantes is a "European" creative hub - it is leading the ECIA pilot action on creative spillovers La Machine (combining artistic inspiration and industrial know-how") is an international cultural icon More than 9 million euro from ERDF spent on culture in 2007-2013 http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/netherlands_map.htm About 150,000 inhabitants Main challenges Actions Results Retain young fashion designers
Improve quality of life and image in Klarendal (poor quarter)
Competition from bigger Dutch cities City plan - culture and fashion design as distinctive elements (ArtEZ Institute)
Infrastructure investment (low cost office space for designers, Arnhem Fashion Factory, design incubator)
"Soft" support - link between school and design companies (for production, design and distribution in a shop with only Dutch design)
Internationalisation - Arnhem Fashion Biennale 30 young designers work and live in Klarendal
Coffees, restaurants and design shops attract local inhabitants and external visitors
New projects just started (e.g. design incubators)
Active at EU level Declining industrial economy but strong service industry Focus on "city of life,
consumption and pleasure" Why investing in culture in a time of crisis? You have 15 min. to:
- Think about a creative project (possibly multi-disciplinary)
- Discuss it with your partner
- Think about 3 words to describe your project to the others
- Funding opportunity at EU level? Conclusions - CCIs provide (new and more) jobs, contribute to growth and, unlike other sectors, are a source of new forms of socioeconomic innovation
- Positive experiences across Europe to learn/to be inspired from (cities as main drivers) - a Europe of culture and culture for Europe
- Favourable policy environment at EU level
- Culture is not a luxury but a source of sustainable development (source of new ideas, environmental friendly, able to communicate social values and create a new narrative for Europe) Challenge Actions Main results 35% of the artists involved in the Kunstgreb project obtained a job in the company they had worked with or with other ones. Danish EU funded project focusing or artists’ contribution to innovation.
It provides artists with a training programme to enable creative skills reach the business sector and make it more innovative. Kunstgreb is the outcome of such request by the Danish Artist
Union and Wishmann Innovation (consultancy). Fight unemployment within the artistic branch (regional empl. bureau in Copenhagen) € 2.5 million (50% by ESF) 63 projects for 53 firms. Service offered for free to the companies - public (Danish Railway or the ATP in charge of pensions) and private ones (like Nokia and the health care company Coloplast). Projects focused on product, process, marketing and organisational innovation. Budget Nominal value: +3%
Employment + 0,9% vs. -2,1% in other sectors
(Unioncamere, 2011) Elevator pitch! Thanks for you attention!
Questions? Valentina Montalto
Creative Europe groups
(FB and LinkedIn) But... UNESCO (1986) Productivity vs. sustainability