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A2 Psychology - Relationships lesson 1

Introduction
by

Amanda Lane

on 12 September 2013

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Transcript of A2 Psychology - Relationships lesson 1

What is a relationship?
How much we like someone can be linked to the mood we were in when we met them. If in a good mood upon meeting, we associate that person with our good mood and consequently find them more attractive.
Outline (A01) The reward/need hypothesis in your own words
Psychology A2 Relationships
Formation of romantic relationships
There are 2 distinctive theories that try to explain why we enter into romantic relationships:
Outline (A01) the matching hypothesis in your own words
What characterises a relationship?
Why do we enter into relationships?
The reward/need satisfaction model
The matching hypothesis
According to Byrne and Clore (1970) one of the reasons we spend so much of our time engaging in social relationships is that we find them rewarding.
What rewards do we get?
Some relationships may reward us directly (operant conditioning) by meeting our psychological needs
Operant conditioning = Behaviour that is followed by desirable consequences is more likely to be repeated.
What behaviours will be rewarded?
How will they be rewarded?
Alternatively, people may reward us indirectly (Classical conditional)
Classical conditioning = Learning an association between two events. A neutral stimulus that creates a conditioned response (initially an unconditioned response).
Because individuals are linked to reinforcement, we are more likely to enter into a relationship with them!!
Argyle (1992) states that we are more likely to warm towards someone that displays non-verbal signs of positive reinforcement such as .....
What do you think these are ?
What do you think the weaknesses of the reward/need satisfaction model are?
The matching hypothesis
In order to initiate the formation of a relationship Murstein (1972) hypothesised that people are attracted to others of similar attractiveness.
Lesson Objective:
To explore the psychological theories to explain why people enter into relationships.
What are your thoughts?
Studies have also shown that attractiveness can be linked to music..... Lets try it out!
May & Hamiliton (1980)
The reward/need satisfaction model
According to the theory there are particular social behaviours that are satisfied by being in a relationship.
Biological needs - collective eating and drinking behaviour
Dependency - affection
Affiliation - approval of others
Dominance - being bossy!
Sex - self explanatory!
Aggression - engaging in group violence
Self-esteem - being valued by others
Hays (1985) found that people often place more emphasis on rewarding others than being rewarded themselves.
Relationships are culture dependent and the N/R satisfction model is based on western relationship values
Women are more attentive to the needs of others than men. This however maybe reinforcement in itself.
The AO2
Walster et al (1966)
Social desirability - attractiveness, social position, intelligence etc
Couples who are evenly matched in terms of social desirability are more likely to have happy and enduring relationships
According to the matching hypothesis, people looking for a partner will not only be considering the social desirability but also the likelihood of the other person reciprocating their affection.
Do you remember the matching hypothesis test you conducted in AS?
The A02
Evidence suggests that people go more for physical attractiveness alone rather than the social desirability 'package'.
Some people are able to compensate for their lack of physical attractiveness with socially desirable characteristics such as money, status etc. This is known as 'complex matching' (Hatfield & Sprecher 2009)
Men value physical attractiveness more than women which is why men are able to compensate for a lack of physical attractiveness more effectively.
The people who we chose to date is often influenced by a third party!
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