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Camila Cano

on 18 November 2013

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Camila Cano
Laura Castillo
Ricardo Layton
María José Zuluaga

When speaking or writing, it is good to avoid repeating things and ensure the flow of the text. Two methods to do that are Substitution and Ellipsis.
This means replacing one Word or phrase with another (David Cotton David Falvey Ian Lebeau Gareth Rees, 2010)

"Don't you ever read the Times, Watson? I've often advised you to do so if you want to know something."
I'd like a drink, but just a small one.
Mary did not take the money, but Susan did.

(Christopher Lee as Sherlock Holmes in Sherlock Holmes and the Deadly Necklace, 1962)
Lexical Substitution
Refers to the replacement of a noun by a substitute. We can replace a noun for a pronoun.
We can use words like:
Would you drink a bottle of orange juice?
Yes, I would like to drink one
Singular sense
Would you like to buy this pair of jeans?
No, I rather these ones
Plural sense
“Another nominal substitute is same,
which usually occurs with the definite article
''the'' and presupposes an entire
nominal group including any modifying elements.”
the same:
I ate three sausages and a
cup of tea. I ate the same
Nouns can be substituted by:
The hunter aimed with precision.

The hunter aimed precisely.

That was not your intention.

You did not intend to do that.

Anna talks with honesty.

Anna is an honest speaker.
Verbs can be substituted by:
She succeeds in everything she does.

She is successful in everything she does.

Michael sympathize with Nathalia.

He feel sympathetically for her.

Hanna aims to be doctor.

Hanna's aim is to be doctor.

Adjectives can be substituted by:
The secretary works skillfully.

The secretary works with skill.
Dogs are treated very differently.
The treatment of dogs greatly differs.
Jackson donated generously to the church.
He was generous in his donation to the church.

Verbal substitution
Taken from: (http://xmujpkc.xmu.edu.cn/ddyyx/net/CH.6/64/642-2.HTM)
It refers to the substitution of a verbal phrase.
In English, the verbal substitute is do, which may replace the whole verbal phrase or part of the verbal phrase (usually the predicate verb):
(Taken from http://xmujpkc.xmu.edu.cn/ddyyx/net/CH.6/64/642-3.HTM)
Mary wouldn't take the money.
But Susan did.
Substitute DO
She absorbs knowledge as a bottle does ink.
The substitute DO should vary in form in accordance with the previous verbal phrase.
Can also collocate with the pronouns so, it, that and the same to replace a verbal phrase, which normally takes the form of "verb + object" and /or "verb + adverbial",
Try to finish typing the letters by lunch time. And let me know when you've done so
When are you planning to sign these documents?
I'll do it this afternoon.
They all started applauding. So, I did the same.
We can use SO or No to replace whole clauses
English clausal substitution can be classified into three types in terms of the context it occurs: report substitution, condition substitution and modality substitution.
According Halliday & Hasan (1976, taken from: http://xmujpkc.xmu.edu.cn/ddyyx/net/CH.6/64/642-4.HTM
In report substitution, so and not are used to substitute a direct speech or a declarative indirect speech
(Taken from: http://xmujpkc.xmu.edu.cn/ddyyx/net/CH.6/64/642-4.HTM),
Do you think he'll come tomorrow?
Yes, I think so.
Condition substitution
It refers to the substitution of a conditional clause by so and not, which usually is co-occurring with if
(taken from http://xmujpkc.xmu.edu.cn/ddyyx/net/CH.6/64/642-4.HTM),
We are told that he will come tonight. But if not, our meeting will be postponed until next Monday.
It refers to the substitution of a clause by:
SO: occurring after the modality adverbs perhaps, possibly, probably.
NOT: occurring after these modality adverbs as well as, certainly, surely, of course.
Will Steven go to Cartagena?
-Probably so. (= Probably
He will go to Cartagena)

Will Andrea waste
his time on that?
-Certainly not. (= Certainly
she’ll not do it.)

To show an omission of a word or words in a quote. Use ellipses to shorten the quote without changing the meaning.
Taken From: (http://www.really-learn-english.com/ellipsis.html)
In informal conversations complete sentences are not always used, especially if the information is already clear.
After school I went to her house, which was a few blocks away, and then came home.
After school I went to her house, and then came home.
´´Any chance of a lift?''
''Is there any chance of a lift in your car?''
Ronald, Hughes, McCarthy; 2000; pág162
In informal sentences we can omit the subject
Didn't phone yesterday
Sometimes a determiner and ''there is/are'' can be left out
Any tea left? (Is there any tea left)
Occurs commonly with verbs such as see, hear and think in questions (have you, do you) and in replies.
Seen Matt lately?
Think he'll ring
Ronald, Hughes, McCarthy; 2000; pág 164
When not to use
This means replacing one word or phrase with another.
(David Cotton David Falvey Ian Lebeau Gareth Rees, 2010)
1. At that time, Tom was working in a restaurant at night, and he was going to school during the day.
2. Before her accident, Martha had been swimming on Saturday mornings, or she had been running in the park.
1. You’ve got more use for it than I have use for it.
2. I was sure it would be worth the effort of breaking them in and it was worth the effort of breaking them in.
3. Two of them disappeared without trace as fast as they could disappear without trace.

• Christopher Lee as Sherlock Holmes in Sherlock Holmes and the Deadly Necklace, 1962
• David Cotton David Falvey Ian Lebeau Gareth Rees, 2010
• Halliday & Hasan (1976, taken from: http://xmujpkc.xmu.edu.cn/ddyyx/net/CH.6/64/642-4.HTM)
• http://xmujpkc.xmu.edu.cn/ddyyx/net/CH.6/64/642-2.HTM
• http://xmujpkc.xmu.edu.cn/ddyyx/net/CH.6/64/642-3.HTM
• http://xmujpkc.xmu.edu.cn/ddyyx/net/CH.6/64/642-4.HTM
• http://xmujpkc.xmu.edu.cn/ddyyx/net/CH.6/64/642-4.HTM
• http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/es/definicion/ingles/ellipsis
• http://www.gsbe.co.uk/grammar-ellipsis.html

The omission of one or more words in order to avoid repetition. It is often done by replacing a complete verb phrase by an auxiliary verb.
Other clause components can also be omitted. Ellipsis is frequently used: with contrasting subjects, objects, or adverbials with the verbs be and have.
With modal auxiliary verbs like should or could.

The omitted words in the elliptical sentence must appear twice in the full sentence, otherwise the omission of unduplicated words results in grammatical errors, and causes confusions in the readers
taken from: http://www.gsbe.co.uk/grammar-ellipsis.html
She has, and always will be, an incurable optimist.
She has been, and always will be, an incurable optimist.
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