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Reconstruction

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Erik Ruiz

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of Reconstruction

Reconstruction By Erik Ruiz The Middle The End The Gilded Age President Ulysses S Grant The Compromise of 1877 end of Reconstruction Pros and Cons of Reconstruction Black Politicians and the Reconstruction Act Women's response to Reconstruction 13th, 14th, and 15th amendment Reconstruction Radical and Moderate Republicans President Andrew Johnson The Beginning Andrew Johnson became the17th president of the United States when Lincoln was assassinated. He was a democrats and was never accepted by the Republicans. He solved the presidential reconstruction debate. He shared the white supremacist view, so he vetoed the Freedmen's Bureau, was later re passed. The republicans responded by passing the Civil Rights Bill, which conferred on blacks the privilege of American citizenship and stuck at the Black codes. Johnson vetoed it, but was later re passed. The Republicans had a veto-proof Congress and virtually unlimited control of Reconstruction policy. But the moderate and radicals were disagreeable over the best course to pursue in the South. The 13th amendment was ratified by President Andrew Johnson, it freed the slaves in the south, was passed in Johnson's plan of Reconstruction. The Reconstruction Act was passed by Congress in March 2, 1867. It divided the South into five military districts, each commanded by a Union general and policed by blue coated soldiers. The act also temporarily disfranchised tens of thousands of former Confederate. Congress additionally laid down stringent conditions for the readmission of the seceded states. With the ratification of the three reconstruction era amendments, it deeply disappointed advocates of women's rights. However, women played a important role to the abolitionist movement and held often pointed out that both women and blacks lack of basis rights. It also strengthen the women's movement for rights. The Pros The Gilded Age started during the last year of the Reconstruction Era, it played a vital role because it was when there was equal political power in the Senate, which all political parties agreed to end the Reconstruction in the South. The growth was interrupted by major nationwide depressions known as the Panic of 1873 and the Panic of 1893. Most of the growth and prosperity came in only the former Union states of North and West. The South, of the defeated Confederate States of America, remained economically devastated; its economy became increasingly tied to cotton and tobacco production, which suffered low prices. African Americans in the south experienced the worst setbacks, as they were stripped of political power and voting rights. The political landscape was notable in that despite rampant corruption President Ulysses S Grant became the 18th president of the United States. His two consecutive terms as President stabilized the nation after the American Civil War and during the turbulent Reconstruction period.As president, he enforced Reconstruction by enforcing civil rights laws and fighting Ku Klux Klan violence. Grant won passage of the Fifteenth Amendment; giving constitutional protection for African-American voting rights. He used the army to build the Republican Party in the South, based on black voters, Northern newcomers "Carpetbaggers"and native white supporters "Scalawags."As a result, African Americans were represented in the U.S. Congress for the first time in American history in 1870. The Compromise of 1877 was the unwritten deal that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election, and ended Reconstruction in the South. Through the Compromise, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was awarded the White House over Democrat Samuel J. Tilden on the understanding that Hayes would remove the federal troops whose support was essential for the survival of Republican state governments in South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana. The compromise involved Democrats who controlled the House of Representatives allowing the decision of the Electoral Commission to take effect. The incumbent president, Republican Ulysses S. Grant, removed the soldiers from Florida. As president, Hayes removed the remaining troops in South Carolina and Louisiana. As soon as the troops left, many white Republicans also left and the "Redeemer" Democrats took control. Before the Civil War ended, the discussion of reconstruction had began. In 1863 Lincoln proclaimed his "10 percent" Reconstruction plan. It decreed that a state could join back to the Union when 10 percent of the voters of the election of 1865 had taken an oath of allegiance to the United States and pledge to abide by emancipation.The next step would be a formal erection of a state government. Lincolns plan provoked Congress, where republicans feared of the planter aristocracy and the re- enslavement of blacks. Therefore the republicans in Congress created the Wade-Davis Bill. It required that 50 percent of the states voters take the oath of allegiance and demanded stronger safeguard for emancipation. Lincoln vetoed the bill by refusing to sign after Congress had adjourned. This separated the Republican party into two groups, the majority moderate Republicans and the Radical Republicans. President Johnson soon settled the argument, he supported Lincolns plan and on May 29, 1865 proclaimed his own plan. He stated that certain confederate states might get pardon in a special state convention, repudiate all Confederate debts and ratifying the 13th amendment. Congressional Reconstruction Congressional Reconstruction was when the Confederate states got united back to the Union, and they all elected new representatives, most of them former Confederate generals and colonels. The Northern Republicans were not ready to give up heir majority power in Congress. In December 4, 1865 they shut the door to the newly elected Southern delegates. The Republicans now restored the Union by dismantling the economic program of the Republican party by lowering tariffs, rerouting the transcontinental railroad, repealing the free farm Homestead Act. President Johnson disturbed the congressional Republicans when he denounced on December 6, 1865. Andrew Johnson was trialed for impeachment in 1868 when he dismissed secretary of war, Edwin M Stanton. Which it violated the Tenure of Office Act by Congress in 1867. the house of representatives voted 126 to 47 to impeach Johnson for "high crime and misdemeanors. On May 16, 1868 the first day voting in the Senate, the radicals failed to muster the two thirds majority for Johnson removal, he was saved by one vote. Congress created the Freedmen's Bureau on March 3, 1865. It was a primitive welfare agency. It provided food, clothing, medical care, and education to both to freedmen and to white refugees. The bureau achieved its greatest success in education,because it taught 200,000 blacks how to read. It as hated by southerner including President Johnson which he tried to kill it, it expired in 1872. The Cons The Black Codes were laws that designed to regulate the affair of the emancipated blacks. Mississippi passed the first black codes in November 1865. Soon other Southern states followed, the black codes varied in severity from state to state. It was aimed to ensure a stable labor force so that the Cotton Kingdom would rise once more. The codes sought to restore the pre-emancipation system of race relation but freedom was legally recognized. The laws mocked the ideal of freedom. The Ku Klux Klan was founded in Tennessee in 1866. They were ex confederate soldiers that terrorized freed blacks. Congress passed the harsh Force
Act of 1870 and 1871, federal troops crushed most of the Klan but
many outlawed group continued to terrorized. The reconstruction era was during the 1865 to 1877 following the Civil War, and the transition of the southern states to join the Union and the Reconstruction of the state, economy, and society. From 1863 to 1869 Presidents Lincoln and Johnson took a moderate position to designed to bring the South back to normal as soon as possible, while the radical republicans used Congress to block the moderate approach, impose harsh terms to the south, and improve rights to the freed blacks. Presidential Reconstruction The 14th amendment was ratified by Congress in 1867. It gave former slaves their rights as citizens. The 15th amendment was ratified by Congress in 1869. It gave freed blacks the right to vote. The 13, 14, and 15th amendments were the three Reconstruction-era amendments. The moderate republicans were the majority in the Senate, they were more sided with President Lincoln and Johnson. The radical republicans in the senate were led by Charles Sumner, they worked tirelessly not only for black freedom, but for racial equality. In the House the most powerful radical was Thaddeus Stevens, a masterly parliamentarian and the leading figure of the of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction. Black men that were elected as delegates to the state constitutional convention held the greater political authority. They formed the backbone of the black political community. There was no election to appoint no black governor in the earlier years of Reconstruction. Between 1868 to 1876, 14 black congressman and 2 black senators served in Washington DC.
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