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Australia and New Zealand

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Mia Randall

on 15 May 2018

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Transcript of Australia and New Zealand

Originally part of New South Wales
1803: Convict settlement at Sullivan Bay, Port Phillip w/ few free settlers
Abandoned quickly due to agr. fail and lack of supplies
1834: The Henty family estd. first permanent settlement
Port Phillip Association 1835: John Batman bought huge amounts of land in area via treaty
Renamed to Melbourne
1851: Separated from NSW and became Victoria
Australia and New Zealand Imperialism

By Mia, Srini, Hunter, Sam, and Ashlyn
Type of Colonization
Before Colonization
Rumors of a vast land in SE
Willem Janszoon (Dutch): First European landing 1606
Called it New Holland, but never claimed it
Race to exploit the Unknown Land, incl. Britain
The Unknown Southern Land
James Cook
Commander of
tasked to find Terra Aus.
Charted all of New Zealand
Claimed land 1770s (New South Wales)
Landed on Botany Bay and encountered an Aboriginal tribe
Brought back everyone without any sicknesses or complications
Became a national hero
James Cook
Why Was It Colonized?
Penal colonies
America recently rebelled; became independent
Imprisonment too expensive in Britain
Different climate and geography; distant, unknown island
Natural resources while serving as penal colonies
Norfolk Island Convict Settlement
Australian Colonies
New South Wales
1788: Arthur Phillip arrived at Botany Bay
Settled @ Sydney Cove (now Sidney)
1st European settlement in Australia
High mortality rate, food shortages, sickness, ineffective agriculture
Arrival of more ships and settlers stabilized society and economy
Sydney Cove
Conditions of Convicts
Indigenous Interaction
Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania)
1803: First settlements estd.
1804: Estd. prominent settlement at Hobart
Most settlements imm. abandoned
Port Arthur and Macquarie Harbor reputable for harsh conditions
Hard to escape
Macquarie known for timber supply as well
Became sep. colony 1825
1850s: Tried to attract free settlers to uplift rep.
Also changed name: "Tasmania"
Van Diemen's Land
Norfolk Island
Russia limited flax and hemp trade
Phillip King estd. Norfolk to compensate for S&D
Small and isolated island great for convict holding
Tougher than Van Diemen's Land
Hard to maintain, rumors of horrible conditions
1855: Norfolk abandoned and convicts moved to Tasmania
Later recolonized by whalers
1859 Oxley
South Australia
Wanted to pursue systematic colonization
South Australian Colonization Commission estd.
1834: S.A.C.A. was written, ratified 1835
Wakefield created first planned and free settlement (South Australia) 1836
Enlightened ideals to shape his settlement
Favored commoners/peasants of the Poor Laws
Infl. future free settlements
Northern Territory part of SA
Sullivan Bay, Port Phillip
South Australian Settlement
Western Australia
1791: New Holland claimed
1829: Captain Fremantle claimed Swan River Colony
Planned for free settlement
1830s: Reports of poor conditions lowered pop. immensely
1832: Renamed to Western Australia
1840s: Economy/Transport completely stagnant
1847: Land petitioned for convict settlements
To revive economy and stabilize population
W.A. became last penal colony in Australia (1850s-1870s)
Swan River Colony
Similar to America
Forcefully colonized by the British
Natives driven off their land
Set up as a penal colony
Cheaper to exile criminals
Australian Government
Started as Self-Governing Colony
Australian Commonwealth
36 Senators
75 Representatives
1 Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Leader of Country
Member of the House
Leads parliamentary party
Chosen by vote of government members
Most powerful
No Maximum service
Chairs meetings
Selects ministers
Leads decisions of government policy
Chief spokesperson
Own Country
Foreign Policy
Gold Rushes

Many falsely accused or no-trial
Isolated; Norfolk and Tasmania even more
Martial law and control; strict discipline
10-hr shifts
Harsh punishments; incl. death
Bad hygiene and living cond., tough weather
Many food & supply shortages
Convicts and British protested to stop penal colonies and cruelties (Rebellions)
Rise of free settlements

Occasional conflicts bet. traders & Natives
Tried to keep peace during colonization
Many land treaties signed
Natives were scammed and were pushed away from their lands
Tried to reclaim land and fight back
Eu. >in tech. and weapons gave adv.
Outbreaks of disease major factor @ play
Ideas of Social Darwinism and Terra Nullius to justify genocide
2000 Eu. vs. 20k Aboriginal casualties
1850s: Gold disc. by Edward Hargraves
Foreigners from all over + settlers flocked Aus.
Became one of the most ethnically-diverse lands
Pop. Boom and Spiked econ.
Most significant rushes in Victoria, from small community to huge econ. and businesses
Chosen by Prime Minister
Allocated portfolios
Trade, Health, etc.
Allocated or Develops policy
Executes decisions
Senators and Representatives
Part of Parliament
Voted on acts and bills
Part of legislative part of government
Voted by state
Australian Economy
No currency
Defined by purpose to jail
Bridgehead economy
The Bridgehead Economy
Private for jailing
Low prioritization
Agriculture for freed convicts and officials
Little convict freedom
Dependent on Britain
Private markets
Ex-Convicts required for government
Growing stability
New Zealand
1642: Abel Tasman sighted islands
1769: Cook charted New Zealand and surr. Pacific Islands
1788: Part of New South Wales, but no big move was made
Whalers and traders with the Maori
Tensions rise; Britain quickly made moves to secure land
How New Zealand Was Colonized
Colonized in 1769
Peaceful encounters with Maori
Expensive colonization, country neglected by Britain
1840 Treaty of Waitangi
New Zealand official British colony

Further Colonization
Extreme British migration
Sometimes provided
Cities with peaceful living
Edward Wakefield's layout
Caused many Maori land disputes
New Zealand Economy
New Zealand Company
Whalers, sealers, and missionaries
Only hundreds of Europeans
Exponential migration
Maori developed to European trading
Gun Trades
Frequent Inner-tribal warfare within the Maori
Guns for shelter, flax, timber, food and shelter
Profitable gun exchange
Steep population decline
Trading died
First New Zealand Government
James Busby appointed as first resident
Helped establish local identity
1835 Declaration appoints first government officials
William Hobson Consul in mid-1839
New Zealand partially ruled by Australian official
First single executive leader
Government Evolving
Governor rules New Zealand 1840-1854
Settlers desire representation
1852 Constitutional Act
Dependent on Australia and Britain
Self-Governing in 1846
Government Layout
Parliament as Legislative
Prime Minister leads government (1893)
Commands House of Representatives
Most powerful
Appoints Officials
Lays out government
Represents New Zealand
Speaker of House
Chairs meetings
Leads Parliament Procedure
Prime Minister
Head of Government
Appointed by Governor-General
Can dissolve Parliament
Manages Ministers
Instituted in 1854
120 House of Representative members
First elections in 1853
European men could vote
Few Tribesmen could vote
1854 First meeting in Auckland
Governor's refusal caused difficulties
Resolved 1856
Parliament located in Wellington
1867 Maori men could vote
All men in 1879
All women in 1893
Musket Wars (1810s-1830s): Maori gained guns from Eu. traders; inter-tribal to settle prev. scores
New Zealand Wars (1845-1872): Mishaps of Waitangi Treaty
Heavy-Guerilla Warfare
Diseases brought to Australia
New diseases accounted for
of deaths amongst the Aboriginal people

No tolerance to foreign diseases = fatal effect
Dietary issues
Territories normally used for hunting and gathering cut off from the Aboriginal people
Resulted in many other health problems

Before 1788
Hongi Hika
Hongi Hika: Well known Maori warriors from Ngapuhi tribe
British missionaries encouraged Hika to go speak with King George the IV about creating a Christian bible in Maori language
Musket Wars
1820: Hongi Hika left for England
On meeting King George IV he was presented with a gift when they stopped in Sydney Australia this gift was traded for muskets and ammunition
The muskets would be used to fight rival tribes in New Zealand
Entry Task
Musket Wars
Custom to present embalmed head of victims to families of the killed warrior
Became a very lucrative trade
Heads would be traded for more muskets and ammunition

1. What are your first observations of what is happening in this political cartoon?
2. What can you infer about the reasons and tactics for Imperialism?
3. What is the meaning behind this picture? 4. Why do you think this was made?
Treaty of Waitangi
1840: Treaty of Waitangi singed
Annexed New Zealand as part of England
Due to language barriers the land agreed upon in the treaty was a bit different in the eyes of England and the Maori

New Zealand Wars
The treaty of Waitangi lead to a series of wars know as the New Zealand wars
These wars were over control of the northern land
In these wars several thousand people died most of which being the Maori population
Scarlet fever
Chicken pox
Common cold
Venereal disease
19th century: The
brought various diseases to New Zealand
Typhoid, Influenza, and measles most common
Death rate reaching its peak in 1875
Early European settlements greatly increased the spread of disease
Missionaries came to New Zealand in 1814
Attempting to convert the Maori people to Christianity
Competition for food and other resources was a large issue given how little land there was left to use
This lead to Aboriginal people being killed in masses
An Australian Digging Site
Abel Tasman
The Musket Wars
New Zealand Wars
only populated by indigenous people
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders
many various cultures and beliefs
well-established trade
very large and complex society
estimated population of 750,000 people and 700 distinctive languages
no horses, roads, tall buildings, or large farms
EXTREMELY conscious of their environment
never over-hunted/collected plants and animals
only took what they needed
Aboriginals cont.
Complex land-management
advanced knowledge of their environment and seasonal weather patterns
Lived in small communities
Hunter-gatherer lifestyle
hunted kangaroos, emus, and turtles
harvested fruits and berries
no books or texts
knowledge passed down by elders
New Zealand
uninhabited by man for around 80 million years
first settlers arrived from Polynesia
between 950 and 1130 AD
named the land Aotearoa
"A distant land, cloud capped, with plenty of moisture and a sweet scented soil." ~
Kupe, chief of Hawaiki (present-day Tahiti)
settled in the Chatham Islands
inter-tribal warring = low population
Chief Nunuku Whenua's new policy
became a very peaceful civilization
population of about 2,000
no central authority
tribes often fought each other
constructed pā
no indigenous mammals
expert hunters and fishermen
hunted the moa bird, seal, and whale
were NOT environmentally conscious
Māori cont.
drove Haast's Eagle and large shellfish into extinction
cultivated land
introduced Polynesian vegetables
including kumara (sweet potato), taro, yam, and paper mulberry
also ate native vegetables, roots, and berries
"stone-age" culture
Immediate results
of colonization
(After 1901)
90% of population dead
diseases, war, and loss of land
Violence towards natives
1911: Government has control over where native people can work and live
1925: Australian Aboriginal Progressive Association
New Zealand:
1907: Became Dominion of Britain
1910: little land owned by Maori
70%-75% land: British farming
Bribed natives w/ weapons and alcohol
Long Term Results
Unequal opportunities because of generations of poverty
“The stolen generation” (1910-1970) taken during the 2 world wars to be raised by white institutions
New Zealand:
The Treaty of Waitangi decreased Native Maori language speakers
British people not interested in learning under standing Maori culture
British farming industry still prominent
The Australia Rap

Britain’s gaining power;
Spreading like springtime flowers.
Australia they desire.
Gold, Glory, God; They inspired.

First Europeans in Australia were the Dutch.
They didn't claim New Holland cuz the lands weren't that lush.
But Britain saw an opportunity, & so they rushed,
To send the convicts that they held; the very, naughty bunch.

Boom! Colonies here, colonies there!
New South Wales, Van Diemen’s
Land, Everywhere!
Norfolk Island, that tiny speck.
Southern Australia; Free settlement.

Gold is unearthed. Solution to,
Horrid economy that suited few.
Australia’s population only grew.
Settlements of diversity found anew.
Um, hold up! What ‘bout the convicts?
Oh, to be honest; they were treated like garbage.
10 hour shifts and harassment.
One-way ticket to Hell’s mansion.
Rebellions, yeah many happened.
But twas a disaster, like my grade in… Jansen.

But paradise, compared to the treatment of the indigenous people that lived there.
For millennium, they had complex languages and cultures; Handled their land with great care.
The settlers abused hospitality provided by the Natives; yeah they scammed 'em.
With constant conflict and wars with each other, pushing Natives straight out their homestead.

They lost so many lives!
No rights; They complied!
Witnessed their culture,
Severed and swallowed up by a vile vulture!
The Brits didn't care!!!
“Social Darwinism”, they said.
“Westernized lifestyles, machinery, weapons, artillery always prevails”, they declared.
Microorganisms, germs, infections like always
Prove to be a factor; unaware.
The countless death and loss of cultural heritage;
Natives in imminent states of despair.
Britain’s got the power.
Modernized lands
; They were scoured.
Australia, now it’s conquered.
This is SrinDub, the fire rapper. Peace!
1962: Commonwealth Electoral Act
1965: All indigenous people can vote in state elections
1967: Counted indigenous people in censuses
1972: Racial Discrimination Act
1988: The Barunga Statement
1991: Reconciliation Movement
Terra Nullius
1992: Mabo vs. Queensland
Recognition of Natives
Australia's "Independence"
Commonwealth of Australia 1901: Still British states, but had rep. and self-govt.
1948: Commonwealth Citizenship and Nationality Act
Were treated like British
1986: No form of British rule, legislature, or influence in Aus.
100% free, independent country
*New Album releasing...
No military activity except for colonization
Due to relation w/ USA and Britain, both Aus. and New Zealand allied and had its role in foreign wars
Second Boer War
WW1 and WW2
Vietnam War
Non-profit and government-run organizations to reconcile and amend injustices of Native discr.
Local, state-wide, and national
SNAICC: Child care services
NACCHO: Health research and treatment
FoMA: Maori comm. support
Healing Foundation: Cultural healing programs
Heavy British Influences
Only free @ 1990s
Most pop. British
American culture infl. after independence
Has no "real" national identity
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