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Ecology

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Helen Zhou

on 21 March 2014

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Transcript of Ecology

Ecosystems and Foodchains
By:
4 Levels of Organization
Symbiotic Relationships
Parasitism
Mutualism
Commensalism
All biotic and abiotic factors
A Population of Rabbits
One body
Biotic?
How are these related?
Abiotic vs.
Biotic

Bio- means living
So Biotic means the living factors in an ecosystem.
For Example...
Grass, Trees, Deer, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians, Mammals, Worms, Fungi, Bacteria, etc.
Abiotic?
"A-" means "not" so abiotic means the non living factors in the environment that affect the living organisms.
For Ex...
Air, Sun, Dirt, Water, Habitats (Ocean, Mountains, Lake, ect.), Temperature, etc.
All organisms need abiotic factors to live.
All plants need the Sun for photosynthesis, so they'll compete for the sunlight.
Animals, including humans, will compete for food, space, water, and homes.
These competitions weed out the weaker organisms which genes do not want to be passed on. AKA-> natural selection-survival of the fittest.
A group of individuals of a given species that live in a specific geographic area. They are the same species but may have different genetic makeup such as hair/skin/eyes.
Ex. A couple of rabbits
Includes all living factors in an ecosystem. Has populations of individuals of different species.
For Ex:
Rabbits, Grass, Snakes, Foxes, and Mice
An ecosystem includes all living and non-living factors in an area that interact with each other.
When a species obtain a benefit from another species, often harming the other. These parasites inflict gradual damage, not instant death.
Host- Organism that receives the damage
For Example...
Fleas-> Dogs, Draws blood and itches.
Aphids-> Plants, Insects that draw blood
Parasitic plants and fungi-> Animals or other plants.
Lumpy jaw, wheat rust, mildew
When both species in the symbiotic relationship get benefits.
For Ex...
Ladybugs-> Plants, eats the aphids that damage plants and ladybugs get food.
Clown fish-> Sea anemone, Sea anemone paralyzes small fish which becomes food for the clown fish and the clown fish chases away harmful fish. Waste from the fish also give the sea anemone nutrients.
Only one organism gets a benefit from the symbiotic relationship, the other is not affected.
For Ex...
Lichen-> Trees, lichen live on trees.
Trumpet fish-> Soft coral, coral camouflage the fish which help it with hunting for food.
Organism
Population
Community
Ecosystem
Biosphere
Any one living thing or organism. Does not breed with other individuals in other groups. Can carry out life functions individually.
Ex. One bunny
All Biotic Factors in a Specific Area
Predator: An organism that preys on other organisms.
Prey: The organism being target
Predator...
Lion
Eagle
Snakes
Wolves
Birds
Prey...
Zebra
Rabbits
Mice
Deer
Insects
Everything starts from the Sun!
Producer
Uses Sun's light for photosynthesis to make glucose. All plants.
Formula for ATP/energy in the form of glucose:
6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Carbon dioxide + Water + Light energy → Glucose + Oxygen
Consumer
Preys on other organisms to get energy and survive. Can not get energy from the Sun.
Decomposer
Breaks down dead/decaying organisms and returns nutrients to the soil.
What is a food chain?
Food chains show the progression of energy from one organism to the next.
The arrows between each organism shows the flow of energy.
Autotrophs: Make their own energy
Heterotroph: have to get energy from outer sources.
Plants
-producer-
Rabbits
-primary consumer-
Snakes
-secondary consumer-
Falcons
-tertiary consumer-
Decomposers
3 Levels of Consumers
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Eats producers
Eats primary consumers
An organism CAN be classified in multiple categories if the food they eat varies between types of consumers.
For example...
If a wolf eats mice (primary) and Snakes (secondary), the wolf is classified as secondary/tertiary.
For Ex...
Small Birds
For Ex...
Foxes
For Ex...
Owls
Food Webs
Shows multiple paths of energy in an ecosystem.
Food chains follow a single path.
A food web is a network of multiple food chains.
Quaternary Consumers
These organisms are at the top of the food chain with no predators hunting them.
For Ex...
Bears, Tigers, Alligators, Hawks, Sharks, etc.
Saltwater Food Web
Savanna Food Web
Detritus
(marine snow)
-secondary-
Bacteria
-primary-
Phytoplankton
-producer-
Mesozooplankton
-primary-
Microzooplankton
Micronekton
Predatory Fish
Sharks
Tuna
Marlin
Freshwater Food Web
Algae, Moss
-producer-
Benthic Invertebrates
Whitefish,
Arctic Char
Pike
Herbivorous Zooplankton
Carnivorous Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
Ducks
Eagles, Peregrine Falcons
Otter
Minx
-primary-
-primary/secondary-
-secondary/tertiary-
-tertiary/quaternary-
-quaternary-
-tertiary-
-producer-
-primary-
-primary-
-secondary/tertiary-
-secondary-
-tertiary/quaternary-
-quaternary-
-tertiary-
Grass
-producer-
Baobab Tree
-producer-
Giraffe
-primary-
Baboon
-primary-
Zebra
-primary-
Jackal
-secondary-
Hyena
-secondary/tertiary-
Cheetah
-secondary/tertiary-
Lion
-tertiary/quaternary-
Now let's say the hyenas get wiped out by a disease.
That would mean one less predator hunting baboons, jackals, giraffes, and cheetahs, making them grow in number.
Also, that would mean less food for lions, making them eat more zebras and cheetahs. Since the grown number of cheetahs and the hungry lions are both hunting the zebras, they will eventually die out. Then, the lions and cheetahs will be forced to rely on another food source. This trend will continue until basically everything is wiped out.
Citations:
Eats secondary consumers
"Levels of Organization in an Ecosystem." Levels of Organization in an Ecosystem. ESchooltoday, n.d. Web. 31 Mar.
2013.
"Parasitism (biology)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2013.
"Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers." Biology: The Study of Life. N.p.: Schraer and Stoltze, 1993. N. pag.
Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers. Web. 03 Apr. 2013.
Stewart, Robert. "Marine Fisheries Food Web." Oceanography in the 21st Century. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Print
African Savanna. - National Geographic Education. National Geographic, n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2013.

And our brains and old notes
-Prairies-
So How are These Different?
Parasites gain benefits off their host, basically just using their body, while predators simply eat their prey.
Scavengers
Feed off of dead bodies
Ex...
Vultures
-Source of all energy-
-Atlantic Ocean-
may represent other oceans with warmer temperature
-Lake Superior-
may represent other lakes
In conclusion, all organisms maintain equilibrium in their environment and each organism is vital towards the success of another. We are all interdependent upon each other and should recognize this. We hope our prezi has taught you about the inner organizations/structures of ecosystems.
All arrows are leading from prey -> predator
All arrows are leading from prey -> predator
All arrows are leading from prey -> predator
Tapeworm
Tapeworms sometimes use fish as hosts. They control the fishes' movements.
Decomposer
Everything
(biotic)
bacteria
mushroom
Decomposer
bacteria
Decomposer
Everything
(biotic)
Leeches
Leeches suck the blood of their host.
Decomposer
mushrooms, worms, and bacteria
Everything (biotic)
Ticks
Ticks are like land leeeches and attach to animals including humans to draw blood.
Full transcript