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Effects of Environmental Pollutants on Coronary Heart Disease

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Stephanie Krajnik

on 7 June 2010

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Transcript of Effects of Environmental Pollutants on Coronary Heart Disease

Double click anywhere & add an idea Effects of Pollutants
on Coronary
Heart Disease Stephanie Krajnik The Problem Effects on Beginning of Life What can we do? Gender Differences Possible Pathology Airborne Particles inorganic components (sulfates, nitrates, ammonium, chloride, trace metals)
elemental and organic carbon
biological components (bacteria, spores, pollen)
volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
ambient aerosols formed from atmospheric gases combining with particles Natural Sources
Anthropogenic Sources road and agricultural dust
tire wear
wood combustion
construction/demolition
mining operations
fuel cmobustion Short Term Effects Increase in particle matter of 10 ug/m3 was associated with
1.27% increase in hospital admissions for coronary heart disease
1% increase in mortality
Long Term Effects
Significant increase in morbidity by 16% per 10 ug/m3 increase in the particulate matter concentration
Accelerated progression of atherosclerosis
Increases cardiac arrhythmia
Decreases heart rate variability
Increases blood viscosity Exposure prevention measures could have saved at least 6000 patients in London over the course of 7 years after pollution greatly increased. Other possible pathways:
Activation of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation systems
Synergy with ozone
AhR pathway if exposed to pyrene a 50% reduction in the distance between the residence and a main road resulted in a 10.2% increase in coronary artery calcification
Precautionary principle? significant relationships between particulate matter and fatal coronary heart disease
stronger effect of total suspended particles on blood viscosity
significant positive associations between personal exposure and oxidation products
differences in particle deposition
Causes for the difference: Females have fewer red blood cells
Females have a higher deposition rate of particles in the lung due to a combination of nutrition, age, genetics, and many other lifestyle factors Affects 81.1M in the US
Cause of one in six US deaths
Coronary Heart Disease:
a narrowing of the small blood vessels that
supply blood and oxygen to the heart
Risk factors:
Age
Diabetes
High blood pressure
Lifestyle/activity level
Genetics
Similarities of effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to troponin T knockout fish 2:1 atrioventricular conduction block
overall cardiac dysfunction resulting in developmental defects of other organs mild pericardial edema
cardiac dysfunction causing developmental effects in kidneys and swim bladder
Full transcript