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Curriculum Development

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Mario Marzullo

on 10 February 2015

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Transcript of Curriculum Development

Curriculum Development
Curriculum Development
According to Wiles and Bondi (2011), "curriculum development evolves through a cycle in which a situation is analyzed, a program is designed, steps are taken to implement the program, and then an assessment is made to ascertain the degree to which the program achieved its goals (p. 157).
A visual guide to the three levels of schooling and various considerations at each level for curriculum development.
Determine teaching tasks and student outcomes
Match objectives to student abilities
Use feedback
Mario Marzullo
CUR/506
February 9, 2015
Dr. Shepard

Adjust instructional delivery
Wiles & Bondi (2011) suggest the six-step cycle to curriculum development can be adapted to instructional delivery in the classroom.
Deliver the planned curriculum
Determine the instructional process
Elementary School
Characteristics
According to Wiles & Bondi (2011), "School organization changes to meet the changing needs of society" (p. 173).
According to Wiles & Bondi (2011), "School organization changes to meet the changing needs of society" (p. 173).
The three levels of schooling in the United States educational system are elementary school, middle school, and high school.
Traditional model: PreK - 5
Children learn basic skills and a myriad of life skills.
Individualized instruction
Subject content areas include:
Language arts
Mathematics
Social Studies
Science
The Arts
Health
Developmental Characteristics that affect curricular design
Students grouped by age and cognitive abilities.
The focus of pre-kindergarten programs, according to Wiles & Bondi (2011), focus on "...physical, cognitive, social, emotional and creative development" (p. 198).
Curriculum and instructional methods must be developmentally appropriate.
Wiles & Bondi (2011) contend that "mathematics is more effective if it is carefully adapted to the developmental characteristics of elementary children" (p. 187).
Language arts programs follow a developmental sequence: listening to speaking to reading to writing.
Classroom Structures
Common patterns in elementary school are:
self-contained classrooms
grade-level teams
cross-grade teams
an ungraded structure
Wiles & Bondi (2011) discuss two types of organization.
"Vertical organization refers to the movement of students from grade to grade or level to level" (Wiles & Bondi, 2011, p. 200).
"Horizontal organization refers to the grouping of students within a grade or level and the assignment of teachers to a grade or level" (Wiles & Bondi, 2011, p. 200).

Curriculum development, design & Common Core State Standards
Development & Design
According to Wiles & Bondi (2011), "Maintaining a developmentally appropriate curriculum in an age of standards and testing has proven challenging to elementary school leaders" (p. 203).
Wiles & Bondi (2011) discuss the effect of governmental programs, high-stakes testing, and standards-based education as influencing curriculum development and design and that curriculum will include:
Implementation of national standards in reading, wrng, and mathematics.
Use of performance-based assessments with rubrics.
Competency-based instruction.
Academic skills placement tests.
State standards and frameworks along with assessment items and benchmark tests.
Portofolio assessment systems.
Alignment of the curriculum through a deliberate approach designed to teach essential learning skills in a systematic and sequential manner (Wiles & Bondi, 2011, p. 175).
Common Core State Standards
A rigorous plan to prepare students for college and career readiness in the global world.
At the elementary level, there is an in-depth focus on essential content skills that form the foundation for later skills.
The standards list the expectations of students from kindergarten through high school.
According to the Common Core State Standards Initiative (2015) website, "The Common Core is not a curriculum. It is a clear set of shared goals and expectations for what knowledge and skills will help our students succeed" (para. 18).
Teachers and educational leaders are to use the standards as a guide to develop curriculum.
Teachers can still individualize how the standards are presented to the students.
Teachers decide how to deliver the instruction of the standards and what instructional strategies will be used.
Middle School
Characteristics
A place to educate transescent learners (the period between childhood and adolescence).
Wiles & Bondi (2011), contend that "Students in this age range [10-14] constitute a distinct grouping--physically, socially, and intellectually" (p. 206).
Explore and develop fundamental skills in a learning environment that respects diversity of learners.
A place of transition between elementary and high schools.
Success of the child is important.
Finally, Wiles & Bondi (2011) contend that middle school provides "a climate that enables students to develop abilities, find facts, weigh evident, draw conclusion, and determine values, and that keeps their minds open to new facts.
Developmental Characteristics that affect curricular design
Physical development begins to increase rapidly.
Health & science courses designed to address these bodily changes.
Physical education programs should provide trasescent students with the opportunity for exercise.
Socially, the students want to explore their new-found determination.
Teachers need to provide guidance.
Include extra-curricular activities, such as clubs to work on building peer relationships.
Flexible teaching
Intellectual development
Use a variety of resources
Flexible grouping
Make real-world connections
Active learning experiences.

Classroom Structures
According to Wiles & Bondi (2011), "...the middle school must be organized to accomodate a flexible approach to instruction" (p. 223).
Block scheduling
Teams of teachers with common planning periods who teach the same students
Special activity periods
advisory programs
intramurals
Curriculum development, design & Common Core State Standards
Development & Design
According to Wiles & Bondi (2011), "A well-designed middle school features a balanced program focusing on personal development, basic skills for continuous learners, and use of knowledge to foster competence" (p. 216).
Wiles & Bondi (2011) discuss the use of their management plan model for the development of an effective middle school program:
"...at the heart of implementing true middle schools is solid, traditional curriculum development" (p. 217).
Program must be balanced.
Curriculum should be based on the needs of the students.
Wiles and Bondi (2011) offer three areas needed in middle school programs:
Personal development
Education for social competence
Skills for continuous learning
Common Core State Standards
A rigorous plan to prepare students for college and career readiness in the global world.

At the middle school level, the common core state standards include a document for literacy in history/social studies, science and technical subjects reinforce the Language Arts standards of reading and writing in subject areas that are dominated by reading and writing.

According to the Common Core State Standards Initiative (2015) website, "The Common Core is not a curriculum. It is a clear set of shared goals and expectations for what knowledge and skills will help our students succeed" (para. 18).
Teachers and educational leaders are to use the standards as a guide to develop curriculum.
Teachers can still individualize how the standards are presented to the students.
Teachers decide how to deliver the instruction of the standards and what instructional strategies will be used.
High School
Characteristics
Students in grades 9 - 12.
Prepare students for post-secondary education and a career
Offers many choices of courses for students to study in the basic disciplines.
Vocational courses, college courses, advanced placement courses, international baccalaureate programs
In-depth courses of study in specialized areas.
Developmental Characteristics that affect curricular design
Wiles & Bondi (2011) discuss the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) report which identified five competencies students in secondary school must possess.
Identify, plan, organize and allocate resources
Work with others
Acquire and use information
Understand complex interrelationships
Work with a variety of technology (Wiles & Bondi, 2011, p. 247).
Secondary schools need to prepare students for success in the global society and workforce.
Classroom Structures
Use departmentalization
According to Wiles & Bondi (2011), this structure "...is organized around separate disciplines that are taught by teachers in a department, such as the mathematics or social studies department" (p. 255).
Allows for simplistic scheduling
All classes are for a set amount of time
Some secondary schools are beginning to allow for more flexibility in the program.
Individual teaching
Small groups
Large groups
Lab-group study
Curriculum development, design & Common Core State Standards
Development & Design
According to Wiles & Bondi (2011), believe that "...the roles of student and teachers are changing, and the purpose of education is shifting from 'going to college' to the 'needs of a worker in a technological society'" (p. 249).
Some secondary schools include a global education component to the educational program.
An emphasis on improving science and mathematics skills.
Specialized courses require teachers who have the experience and knowledge of the content in order to develop a curriculum.
Common Core State Standards
A rigorous plan to prepare students for college and career readiness in the global world.

At the high school level, the common core state standards include a section of literacy and writing standards for history/social studies, science, and other technical subjects which build upon Language Arts standards.

The standards list the expectations of students from kindergarten through high school.

According to the Common Core State Standards Initiative (2015) website, "The Common Core is not a curriculum. It is a clear set of shared goals and expectations for what knowledge and skills will help our students succeed" (para. 18).
Teachers and educational leaders are to use the standards as a guide to develop curriculum.
Teachers can still individualize how the standards are presented to the students.
Teachers decide how to deliver the instruction of the standards and what instructional strategies will be used.
Technology
The advent of technologies occurs rapidly.
Newer technologies are available just as older technologies enter the classroom.
Teachers need to include technology in the curricula they teach.
Students, today, are highly proficient in the use of technology devices.
Curriculum designers must include technology to better prepare our students for success in their adult lives.
Alternative Scheduling
Year round schooling
At the secondary level, research has shown that this alternative model decreases the droupout rate (Wiles & Bondi, 2011).
Students retain more information.
Teachers do not have to plan for review sessions after breaks in the instructional process.

Block Scheduling
Allows for larger blocks of time for instruction.
Can be done in middle school and high school.
Teachers have smaller classes and can create more individualized learning experiences for the students in the class.
References:
Common Core State Standards: A New Foundation for Student Success (Stand Alone). (2011, September 22). Retrieved February 9, 2015, from
Common Core State Standards Initiative. (2015). Myths vs facts. Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/about-the-standards/myths-vs-facts/
Wiles, J. W. & Bondi, J. C. (2011). Curriculum development: A guide to practice (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
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