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Copy of Sigmund Freud and Pyschoanalysis

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Steven Yip

on 9 October 2012

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Transcript of Copy of Sigmund Freud and Pyschoanalysis

Psychoanalysis
and
Difference Gender was not inborn. Application of Freud's Theory Unconscious. The unconscious is the site of meanings and desires, unsanctioned by the law of society, and it is a constant threat to the apparent unity and sovereignty of the conscious subject. The Mirror Phase
The Phallus
Symbolic Order “Lacan developed Freud’s theory of the acquisition of gendered subjectivity into a general theory of society and culture. According to Lacan both meaning and subjectivity are structured in relation to a primary signifier, the Phallus, which governs the symbolic order of society and culture. Control of the Phallus is control of the Other. ”

“Subjectivity is founded on the misrecognition by the individual of himself as Other. This structure of misrecognition is laid down in the mirror phase.” His education.... Absence or presence of the penis. (Lack)
Different position in the symbolic order
How do feminists shift Freud and Lacan’s theories to positive terms? “In Lacanian theory the symbolic order is necessarily patriarchal since the difference which makes meaning possible is guaranteed by a transcendental primary signifier, the Phallus. The Phallus has an ambiguous status in Lacan: at times it is symbolic, defining relations of lack shared by both women and men. At other times it can be read a representing the penis. ”

“The primacy of the Phallus as the signifier of difference means that, for women, subjectivity is a masculine-defined subjectivity. Western thought is thus both logocentric, privileging the word, and phallocentric, privileging the phallus. ” Theories Conclusion Discussion 1, How do we understand "the importance of Gender Difference for feminist action"?
2, Is gender difference affect the constitution of subjectivity? Limitation?
3, How about the other category?(e.g. race,class,etc....)
Freud & Lacan
Chodorow What we thought is:
Psychoanalysis contribution
Round up of "how psychoanalysis percives gender difference?"
The ID The EGO The SUPEREGO SUPEREGO is the part of the psyche that is moralizing and punishing. It is what holds us accountable for the actions we take. The ID is the part of our psyche that acts on basic needs.
Responsible for sexual and aggressive behavior. The EGO is the compensator for the ID and SUPEREGO.
This part of the psyche listens to both the ID and SUPEREGO
and creates a solution to satisfy both. Reaction Formation Regression Repression Denial Transforming distressing thoughts in their opposites inc consciousness. Returning to less mature levels of behavior. Blocking a dsitressing
memory from consciousness. Refusing to admit to the
reality of adistressing situation Defense Mechanisms Freud divided the average person's conscious into 3 parts.... Penis Envy?

“Gender difference is based on the psychical effects of the presence or absence of the penis. Once she notices a boy’s penis, the little girl falls victim to penis envy, recognizing ‘the fact of her castration and with it, too, the superiority of the male and her own inferiority.” P78

Lack?

“The idea that women are defined by lack rather than by difference in any positive sense, a lack which, in Freud, results in penis-envy, was decisive in early second-wave feminist rejections of psychoanalysis as a thoroughly patriarchal set of theories.” Freud Differences
between
male and female Louis Althusser & Juliet Mitchell LACAN LACAN The Mirror Phase The Phallus Conclusion by @Monica Wong Identified distinctive aspects of femininity: ‘the powerful and lasting effects of the submerged pre-Oedipus, women’s fluid ego boundaries and relationally structured identities, the complicated negotiations and multiple repressions by which women reach adulthood, and their ambivalent but determining mother-daughter bond’ ? American feminist--Feminist Object Relations Theory Chodorow Mother-daughter bond double identification: with her own mother and with her child Boys
Differentiate themselves from mother → represses and devalue femininity → Develop a masculine identity based on father
Father plays a lesser role in child care → ‘positional’ identification rather than ‘personal identification’
Men- abstract and universalistic relationships with men
separate and distinct from others

Girls
a lesser degree of individuation than boys → more flexible ego boundaries → subordination to men
Women – equally deep and primary relationships with children and other women Internal effect
Women’s primary responsibility for parenting lies at the root of gender difference.

External effect
The role that women play in mothering is ‘the basis for the reproduction of women’s location and responsibilities in the domestic sphere’, and central to the reproduction of the patriarchal family. Internal effect:

Women’s primary responsibility for parenting lies at the root of gender difference. External effect:

The role that women play in mothering is ‘the basis for the reproduction of women’s location and responsibilities in the domestic sphere’, and central to the reproduction of the patriarchal family. Men’s greater personal involvement in child care could transform the psycho-sexual structures governing masculinity and femininity and create the preconditions for the abolition of the sexual division of labour. Transformation of the social organization of family life by @Josephine Semiotic A psychoanalyst / poststructuralist

1. West: monosexual culture; Women: a lesser form of man
2. Patriarchal symbolic order: exclude maternal feminine
3. Exchange of women vs. incest taboo
4. Female sexuality: passivity, lack Irigaray Enable women to step outside of patriarchal definitions of the feminine and become subjects in their own right

Defining unconscious (Freud / Lacan vs. Irigaray)
Freud / Lacan: fixed, universal
Irigaray: a product of history

How to change: Develop a female imaginary –transform the symbolic—assume subjectivity in women’s own right
Change is not easy Maternal feminine subjectivity Irigaray: the symbolic order is problematic for women as well as the future of the planet

Eg: threat of global nuclear destruction
A product of science and philosophy (male subject),
It has a sex.
Overall cultural transformation is needed.
Male vs. Female (standpoint theory) An eco-feminist? Irigaray: a female imaginary and specific-to-women symbolic

Voice out and value sexual difference

Eg: female homosexuality

Freud: mother/son, husband/wife

Irigaray: acting like a man

Reason: women exist only as an occasion for mediation, transaction, transition, and transference

For Irigaray, relations between women are the precondition for women’s escape from the male-defined feminine. On difference by @Ashley Rethinking Difference Deleuze & Guattari Great Discovery from Freud and Lacan:
- Unconscious
- Desire

But Limitation,
- Oedipus Complex

Thus, Deleuze & Guattari wrote a book
- "Anti- Oedipus" Deleuze & Guattari For "Oedipus Complex"

Unconscious --> Classical Theatre
- Unities of Production --> Representation

More Elaborate,
- Father-Mother-Son
- Symbolic Orders Deleuze & Guattari The Production of Desire
- Unconscious as Factory
- Desire has productive force
Desiring Machine
- example : sex toy

Desire Produce Reality
- Desiring Production = Social Production Deleuze & Guattari Gender Difference ?
- Organless Body/Body without Organs
- Unterritorized, de-constructing Structure
Where is Woman?
- "Becoming Woman"
- Woman as "Minority" Deleuze & Guattari French Feminist
Appropriation of: Psychoanalysis Post-structuralism
Rejects the dualism in Lacan’s and Freud’s theory: Man vs Woman (defined by ‘Lack’)
Deconstruction of subject, meaning and signifier Julia Kristeva Lacan: mankind ? Subject

? = the Symbolic Order (Language, Culture,
Patriarchal mechanisms)
Speaking subject
All subjects are masculine, even the
femininity

The ‘feminine’ subject is missing Constitution of Subject Subjectivity is not fixed, humanist essence Rather, it is always in process and with contention, varies in the degree to which it is governed by the Symbolic (Masculine) and the Semiotic (Feminine)

Site for revolutionary change: language and articulation of the Semiotic (to change the Symbolic)
Eg. Poetic language Subject-in-process by @Steve Julia Kristeva
…… Sincere dedication
by Qi Pa Group Deleuze!!!
#$%^$^ by @
A
L
B
E
R
T Femininity as Masquerade Kristeva: the Semiotic
- fragmented and unconscious drives in pre-oedipus stage
- repressed by and co-existed with the Symbolic

The semiotic chora: Space for subject generation and negation
- a word from Greek
- not a signifier
- an open and fluid space for
1. Construction and Destruction
2. Identification and Negation Constitution of Subject
Full transcript